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Table 5 Associations between area-level indicators and poor SRH determined by multilevel logistic regression

From: Individualized and institutionalized residential place-based discrimination and self-rated health: a cross-sectional study of the working-age general population in Osaka city, Japan

   Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
   Unadjusted model Age- and sex-adjusted model Age, sex and corresponding individual-level factor-adjusted modela Age, sex, PBD and SES-adjusted modelb
Area-level indicators   ORs 95%CI ORs 95%CI ORs 95%CI ORs 95%CI
Area-level PBD, aggregatedc Lowest (reference) 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
(ALPBD)e 2nd 1.26 0.89, 1.77 1.23 0.85, 1.74 1.21 0.85, 1.72 1.18 0.83, 1.68
  3rd 1.43 1.03, 2.00 1.42 1.01, 1.99 1.38f 0.99, 1.92 1.31f 0.93, 1.84
  Highest 1.84 1.35, 2.52 1.76 1.29, 2.43 1.57 1.13, 2.18 1.32f 0.95, 1.86
Area-level unemployed, aggregatedc Lowest (reference) 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
(ALUEA) 2nd 0.83 0.60, 1.16 0.80 0.57, 1.11 0.80 0.56, 1.11 0.84 0.61, 1.16
  3rd 0.65 0.46, 0.93 0.64 0.45, 0.90 0.60 0.42, 0.85 0.65 0.46, 0.92
  Highest 1.06 0.78, 1.46 1.02 0.75, 1.40 0.92 0.66, 1.27 0.90 0.67, 1.23
Area-level unemployed, censusd Lowest (reference) 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
(ALUEC) 2nd 0.86 0.62, 1.22 0.85 0.61, 1.20 0.83 0.58, 1.17 0.82 0.59, 1.16
  3rd 0.94 0.67, 1.32 0.92 0.65, 1.29 0.87 0.61, 1.25 0.77 0.55, 1.08
  Highest 1.36 0.99, 1.89 1.32 0.96, 1.81 1.23 0.88, 1.71 0.99 0.72, 1.38
Area-level not-home-owner, aggregatedc Lowest (reference) 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
(ALNHA) 2nd 1.28 0.91, 1.82 1.28 0.91, 1.81 1.17 0.82, 1.65 1.16 0.81, 1.65
  3rd 1.53 1.10, 2.13 1.59 1.14, 2.22 1.33 0.94, 1.86 1.34 0.94, 1.89
  Highest 1.57 1.14, 2.20 1.63 1.17, 2.28 1.16 0.82, 1.66 1.13 0.79, 1.63
Area-level not-home-owner, censusd Lowest (reference) 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
(ALNHC) 2nd 1.24 0.87, 1.76 1.17 0.82, 1.68 1.18 0.84, 1.65 1.05 0.74, 1.48
  3rd 1.48 1.05, 2.11 1.43 1.02, 2.05 1.50 1.07, 2.08 1.22 0.87, 1.73
  Highest 1.65 1.18, 2.33 1.61 1.14, 2.30 1.53 1.11, 2.12 1.26 0.91, 1.76
Area-level deprivation index, censusd Lowest (reference) 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
(ALDI) 2nd 1.16 0.83, 1.61 1.19 0.86, 1.66 1.17 0.83, 1.66 1.09 0.76, 1.53
  3rd 0.96 0.68, 1.35 0.98 0.69, 1.38 0.90 0.62, 1.27 0.82 0.57, 1.15
  Highest 1.78 1.30, 2.44 1.76 1.30, 2.40 1.66 1.20, 2.28 1.21 0.86, 1.68
  1. aWorking status was adjusted for the model for area-level deprivation index.
  2. bAge, sex, individual-level perceived PBD, working status, housing tenure and education attainment were adjusted.
  3. cThe term “aggregated” means area-level aggregates (%) of survey positive responses for individual-level place-based discrimination, unemployment or not-home-owner within each tract.
  4. dThe term “census” means that area-level indicators were created from the information from Japanese census 2005.
  5. eTransferred from Table 4.
  6. fStatistical significance of P < 0.1 (marginal significance).