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Table 4 Multilevel odds ratios (95%CI) for poor self-rated health, area-level PBD model

From: Individualized and institutionalized residential place-based discrimination and self-rated health: a cross-sectional study of the working-age general population in Osaka city, Japan

   Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
   Unadjusted model Age- and sex-adjusted model Age, sex and corresponding individual-level factor-adjusted modela Age, sex, PBD and SES-adjusted modelb
   ORs 95%CI ORs 95%CI ORs 95%CI ORs 95%CI
Fixed effects          
Area-level PBD, aggregatedc Lowest (reference) 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
(ALPBD) 2nd 1.26 0.89, 1.77 1.23 0.85, 1.74 1.21 0.85, 1.72 1.18 0.83, 1.68
  3rd 1.43 1.03, 2.00 1.42 1.01, 1.99 1.38d 0.99, 1.92 1.31d 0.93, 1.84
  Highest 1.84 1.35, 2.52 1.76 1.29, 2.43 1.57 1.13, 2.18 1.32d 0.95, 1.86
Age group 25-34 (reference)    1.00   1.00   1.00  
  35-44    1.35d 0.96, 1.92 1.35d 0.96, 1.92 1.36d 0.96, 1.95
  45-54    1.86 1.31, 2.65 1.83 1.29, 2.61 2.06 1.44, 2.95
  55-65    2.20 1.59, 3.08 2.22 1.61, 3.11 1.86 1.32, 2.66
Sex Male (reference)    1.00   1.00   1.00  
  Female    0.74 0.59, 0.91 0.72 0.58, 0.89 0.61 0.48, 0.76
Individual-level perceived PBD No (reference)      1.00   1.00  
  Yes      1.79 1.21, 2.62 1.89 1.33, 2.81
Working status Working (reference)        1.00  
  Not working        2.74 2.08, 3.59
  Unemployed        2.28 1.50, 3.42
Housing tenure Home owner (reference)        1.00  
  Not home owner        1.83 1.45, 2.30
Education attainment College or more (reference)        1.00  
  High school or less        1.44 1.14, 1.81
Random effects          
Area-level variancee   0.047 0.044 0.040 0.036
Deviance information criterionf   2301.4 2273.0 2266.7 2170.8
  1. Abbreviations: CI credible interval, ORs Odds ratios, PBD place-based discrimination, SES socioeconomic status.
  2. aIndividual-level perceived PBD was adjusted as a corresponding individual-level factor in this case in addition to age and sex.
  3. bAge, sex, individual-level perceived PBD, working status, housing tenure and education attainment were adjusted.
  4. cThe term “aggregated” means area-level aggregates (%) of survey positive responses for individual-level place-based discrimination within each tract.
  5. dStatistical significance of P < 0.1 (marginal significance).
  6. eArea-level variance means the extent of variability between areas after fixed effects adjustments.
  7. fDeviance information criterion was used to compare the goodness-of-fit of each model. Generally, lower estimates means good fit.