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Table 3 Perceived place-based discrimination and poor self-rated health according to the quartile of the area-level indicators

From: Individualized and institutionalized residential place-based discrimination and self-rated health: a cross-sectional study of the working-age general population in Osaka city, Japan

   Subjects Individual-level place-based discrimination, yes Poor self-rated health
Area-level indicators Quartile (range) N (%) N (%) P for differencea N (%) P for differencea
Area-level place-based discrimination, aggregatedb Lowest (0.0-0.0) 869 (29.3) 0 (0.0) <0.01 91 (10.5) <0.01
(ALPBD) 2nd (2.7-3.3) 632 (21.3) 19 (3.0)   82 (13.0)  
  3rd (3.4-7.4) 694 (23.4) 34 (4.9)   98 (14.1)  
  Highest (7.7-50.0) 768 (25.9) 138 (18.0)   133 (17.3)  
Area-level unemployed, aggregatedb Lowest (0.0-2.3) 728 (24.6) 49 (6.7) 0.01 111 (15.3) 0.01
(ALUEA) 2nd (2.6-3.8) 744 (25.1) 30 (4.0)   97 (13.0)  
  3rd (4.0-8.0) 716 (24.2) 49 (6.8)   75 (10.5)  
  Highest (8.1-18.5) 775 (26.2) 63 (8.1)   121 (15.6)  
Area-level unemployed, censusc Lowest (3.0-8.4) 729 (24.6) 23 (3.2) <0.01 96 (13.2) <0.01
(ALUEC) 2nd (8.6-10.3) 765 (25.8) 30 (3.9)   88 (11.5)  
  3rd (10.8-13.1) 723 (24.4) 50 (6.9)   91 (12.6)  
  Highest (13.1-28.6) 746 (25.2) 88 (11.8)   129 (17.3)  
Area-level not-home-owner, aggregatedb Lowest (8.6-26.9) 737 (24.9) 32 (4.3) <0.01 76 (10.3) <0.01
(ALNHA) 2nd (27.3-37.5) 707 (23.9) 46 (6.5)   92 (13.0)  
  3rd (39.3-57.1) 774 (26.1) 48 (6.2)   118 (15.3)  
  Highest (57.9-100.0) 745 (25.1) 65 (8.7)   118 (15.8)  
Area-level not-home-owner, censusc Lowest (18.5-43.2) 738 (24.9) 30 (4.1) <0.01 88 (11.9) 0.17
(ALNHC) 2nd (43.6-54.4) 734 (24.8) 43 (5.9)   92 (12.5)  
  3rd (54.4-68.5) 755 (25.5) 61 (8.1)   113 (15.0)  
  Highest (68.9-97.0) 736 (24.8) 57 (7.7)   111 (15.1)  
Area-level deprivation index, censusc Lowest (0.0-19.9) 751 (25.4) 25 (3.3) <0.01 84 (11.2) <0.01
(ALDI) 2nd (20.5-31.0) 736 (24.8) 18 (2.5)   98 (13.3)  
  3rd (31.0-46.0) 731 (24.7) 43 (5.9)   81 (11.1)  
  Highest (46.7-100.0) 745 (25.1) 105 (14.1)   141 (18.9)  
  1. Note: Higher quartiles indicate more disadvantaged area.
  2. aCalculated by chi-squared tests.
  3. bThe term “aggregated” means area-level aggregates (%) of survey positive responses for individual-level place-based discrimination, unemployment or not-home-owner within each tract.
  4. cThe term “census” means that area-level indicators were created from the information from Japanese census 2005.