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Table 2 Characteristics, according to categories of sugar-sweetened beverage intake by sex in a Mexican adult population

From: Sweetened beverage consumption and the risk of hyperuricemia in Mexican adults: a cross-sectional study

  Men Women
  < 0.5 SB/day ≥ 0.5-1.0 SB/day >1.0- < 3.0 SB/day ≥ 3 SB/day   < 0.5 SB/day ≥ 0.5-1.0 SB/day >1.0- < 3.0 SB/day ≥ 3 SB/day  
  (n = 333) (n = 425) (n = 592) (n = 606) P value* (n = 1178) (n = 1063) (n = 1312) (n = 1196) P value*
Age (years) Ş 45.5 (12.0) 43.9 (11.8) 41.9 (11.4) 40.7 (11.0) < 0.001 45.8 (12.7) 43.3 (12.3) 42.2 (11.7) 41.0 (11.4) < 0.001
18-27% 5.0 7.9 10.4 10.8 0.003 9.5 12.2 12.7 13.2 0.004
28-37 22.3 24.8 28.7 31.4 0.003 19.5 22.6 23.6 27.1 < 0.001
38-47 28.2 30.2 28.9 30.0 0.6 25.8 28.8 31.0 31.7 0.001
48-57 27.3 22.4 22.1 19.8 0.01 24.4 22.9 22.5 19.3 0.003
58-70 17.2 14.7 9.9 8.0 < 0.001 20.8 13.5 10.2 8.7 <0.001
BMI (kg/m 2 ) Ş 26.7 (3.8) 26.9 (4.0) 27.2 (4.0) 27.4 (3.8) 0.01 26.8 (4.8) 26.9 (4.7) 26.5 (4.6) 26.4 (4.7) 0.1
Overweight % Ω 50.5 52.8 49.1 50.6 0.9 39.4 37.9 38.1 40.3 0.6
Obese % 15.4 15.2 21.3 21.8 0.02 21.1 22.6 19.8 18.4 0.1
Body fat proportion 29.3 (6.9) 30.0 (7.6) 30.7 (7.8) 30.5 (6.7) 0.01 42.4 (6.7) 42.9 (6.5) 42.5 (6.7) 42.6 (6.5) 0.5
Excess body fat % ¶ 75.8 78.7 82.2 83.2 0.01 86.1 88.2 86.7 87.6 0.3
Physical activity (min/d) Ş 33.8 (37.5) 31.0 (37.7) 33.2 (39.2) 34.8 (40.6) 0.7 25.2 (30.0) 22.9 (29.9) 19.5 (25.7) 22.7 (28.4) 0.05
Active (≥30 min/d) % 42.9 37.6 40.3 43.1 0.9 35.2 32.0 27.9 32.6 0.2
Tobacco use %           
Ex-smoker 40.1 42.1 37.3 34.4 0.1 22.1 19.4 19.8 21.0 0.5
Current smoker 16.3 20.1 30.6 33.2 < 0.001 13.2 14.8 20.4 21.1 < 0.001
Uric acid (mg/dL) Ş 5.7 (1.3) 5.8 (1.6) 5.9 (1.4) 6.1 (1.5) < 0 .001 4.3 (1.3) 4.4 (1.2) 4.4 (1.2) 4.4 (1.3) 0.9
Hyperuricemia %+ 13.4 19.2 20.8 25.2 < 0.001 13.1 13.8 14.1 14.1 0.9
Dietary variables           
Portion of sweetened beverages/dayŞ 0.3 (0.4) 0.8 (0.4) 1.5 (0.7) 3.5 (1.6) < 0.001 0.3 (0.4) 0.8 (0.4) 1.5 (0.8) 3.5 (1.5) < 0.001
Calorie intake from sweetened beverages (kcal/day)Ş 34.9 (26.8) 102.2 (41.8) 196.2 (89.4) 442.4 (195.9) < 0.001 28.9 (25.1) 96.8 (40.4) 180.2 (90.8) 426.4 (182.4) < 0.001
Total calorie intake (kcal/day)Ş 2214 (1004) 2250 (827) 2324 (929) 2416 (931) 0.002 2035 (934) 2155 (840) 2111 (916) 2309 (871) < 0.001
Carbohydrates (% of energy)Ş 56.9 (10.0) 57.2 (8.1) 57.8 (7.7) 62.7 (7.3) < 0.001 59.5 (10.0) 59.4 (8.0) 60.2 (7.6) 65.1 (7.4) < 0.001
Protein (% of energy)Ş 17.9 (7.7) 17.7 (6.0) 17.8 (6.0) 15.6 (4.9) <0.001 15.0 (5.6) 15.2 (4.8) 15.2 (4.6) 13.0 (3.9) < 0.001
Fat (% of energy)Ş 25.2 (6.1) 25.1 (5.3) 24.4 (4.9) 21.7 (4.6) < 0 .001 24.5 (6.5) 25.4 (5.2) 24.5 (4.8) 21.8 (4.9) < 0.001
Alcohol intake (gr/day) 10.2 (40.9) 9.3 (17.1) 10.0 (17.7) 7.7 (12.6) 0.18 2.1 (5.2) 2.5 (6.3) 2.0 (5.4) 2.1 (4.8) 1.00
Total meat intake (servings/day)a 1.45 (1.3) 1.47 (0.9) 1.54 (0.9) 1.46 (0.9) 0.88 1.19 (1.0) 1.33 (0.9) 1.32 (0.9) 1.26 (0–8) 0.06
Seafood intake (servings/day)b 0.20 (0.33) 0.15 (0.17) 0.13 (0.15) 0.13 (0.18) < 0.001 0.15 (0.25) 0.15 (0.19) 0.13 (0.22) 0.12 (0.30) 0.08
Low fat dairy intake (serving/day)c 0.62 (1.0) 0.53 (1.0) 0.46 (0.8) 0.39 (0.8) < 0.001 0.70 (1.1) 0.60 (1.0) 0.48 (0.9) 0.47 (0.9) <0.001
High fat dairy intake (servings/day)d 1.8 (1.8) 1.9 (1.8) 1.7 (1.4) 1.7 (1.5) 0.36 2.3 (2.4) 2.3 (2.0) 2.1 (1.9) 2.0 (1.9) 0.003
Coffee intake (servings/day) 0.44 (0.9) 0.47 (0.9) 0.54 (0.9) 0.55 (0.9) 0.05 0.44 (0.8) 0.46 (0.8) 0.58 (0.9) 0.57 (0.9) <0.001
Total fruit intake (servings/day)e 4.8 (5.2) 3.9 (4.2) 3.6 (3.9) 3.1 (3.5) <0.001 6.0 (6.4) 5.4 (5.3) 4.7 (5.0) 4.5 (4.5) < 0.001
Total vitamin C intake (mg/day)f 278 (256) 237 (185) 230 (199) 230 (196) 0.001 330 (298) 303 (239) 287 (256) 317 (247) 0.24
  1. ŞValues are means and with SD in parentheses, unless otherwise specified;
  2. Ω BMI: Overweight ≥ 25 - < 30 kg/m2; Obese, when BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2;
  3. ¶ Central obesity: > 102 cm in men and > 88 cm in women;
  4. + Hyperuricemia: ≥ 7.0 mg/dL for men, and ≥ 5.8 mg/dL for women;
  5. aTotal meat included main or mixed dish of beef/pork/lamb/, processed meat (sausage/bacon/ham/cecina/chorizo), poultry, chicken liver, beef liver, fried pork chunks;
  6. bSeafood intake included tuna, sardines, other seafood;
  7. cLow fat dairy foods included skim/low fat milk and panela cheese;
  8. dHigh fat dairy foods included whole milk, cream, butter, ice cream, cream cheese, and other cheese.
  9. eTotal fruit intake included banana, plum, peach, apple, orange, grapes, strawberry, blackberry, melon, watermelon, mango, tangerine, pear, mammee apple, sapote, prickly pear, papaya, pineapple;
  10. fTotal vitamin C included dietary vitamin C and supplemental vitamin C;
  11. * P-values were determined using a test for linear trend for continuous variables and chi2 test for categorical variables.