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Table 1 Baseline characteristics amongst the 172 IDUs

From: Gender differences in mortality and risk factors in a 13-year cohort study of street-recruited injecting drug users

Characteristics Females Males x 2, p-value Total
n = 44 (100%) n = 128 (100%) n = 172
Age groups
  ≥ 30 years 22 (50%) 85 (66%) x 2 = 3.8 p = 0.053* 107 (62%)
> Mandatory years of educationa
  Yes 29 (66%) 94 (73%) x 2 = 0.9 p = 0.340 123 (72%)
Work income
  Yes 1 (2%) 25 (20%) x 2 = 7.6 p = 0.006** 26 (15%)
Sex work
  Yes 21 (48%) 0 x 2 = 69.6 p < 0.001*** 21 (12%)
Theft
  Yes 15 (34%) 50 (39%) x 2 = 0.3 p = 0.557 65 (38%)
Dealing
  Yes 14 (32%) 50 (39%) x 2 = 0.7 p = 0.391 64 (37%)
Monthly income > 33,000 NKRb
  Yes 27 (61%) 57 (45%) x 2 = 3.7 p = 0.054* 84 (49%)
Years of injecting career
  > 5 years 32 (73%) 105 (82%) x 2 = 1.2 p = 0.279 137 (80%)
Drug use in the previous four weeks
Daily or almost daily injections
  Yes 42 (95%) 113 (88%) x 2 = 1.9 p = 0.169 155 (90%)
Heroin most injected
  Yes 43 (98%) 113 (88%) x 2 = 3.5 p = 0.063* 156 (91%)
To have injected > 12.9 grams of heroinc
  Yes 29 (66%) 67 (52%) x 2 = 2.4 p = 0.118 96 (56%)
Combined heroin and prescription drugs in injections
  Yes 20 (45%) 33 (26%) x 2 = 5.9 p = 0.015** 53 (31%)
Any use of prescription drugs
  Yes 32 (73%) 67 (52%) x 2 = 5.6 p = 0.018** 99 (58%)
Alcohol ≥2 days a week or more
  Yes 10 (23%) 31 (24%) x 2 = 0.04 p = 0.841 41 (24%)
Cannabis ≥2 days a week or more
  Yes 13 (30%) 52 (41%) x 2 = 1.7 p = 0.191 65 (38%)
  1. *p < 0.10, **p < 0.05, ***p < 0.001.
  2. aIn Norway all children are expected by law to attend school for 10 years. Prior to 1997, it was nine years.
  3. bThe cut-off was set at the median total income in Norwegian Kroner in the total sample. In 2013 33,000 NKR amounts to 3,560 GBP.
  4. cThe cut-off was set at the median amount of heroin injected by the total sample which was 12.9 grams of heroin injected in the past month.