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Table 3 Factors associated with changes in breast and cervical cancer screening attendance rates by population size

From: Effect size and cost-effectiveness estimates of breast and cervical cancer screening reminders by population size through complete enumeration of Japanese local municipalities

  Total   Population size  
  Fewer than 50 000   Between 50 000 and 100 000   More than 100 000  
Adjusted difference 95% CI   Adjusted difference 95% CI   Adjusted difference 95% CI   Adjusted difference 95% CI  
Breast cancer screening              
  Reminders Group 1 (2007 no–2008 no) - -   - -   - -   - -  
   Group 2 (2007 yes–2008 no) -0.60 (-0.46, 0.26)   -0.42 (-1.62, 0.77)   -0.43 (-2.20, 1.34)   -0.92 (-2.11, 0.28)  
   Group 3 (2007 no–2008 yes) 1.24 (0.32, 2.16) ** 1.50 (0.28, 2.72) * 2.76 (0.41, 5.11) * -0.25 (-1.65, 1.14)  
   Group 4 (2007 yes–2008 yes) 1.13 (0.49, 1.77) ** 1.31 (0.43, 2.18) ** 0.72 (-0.64, 2.07)   0.84 (-0.10, 1.78)  
  2007 Attendance rates   -0.35 (-0.39, -0.31) ** -0.38 (-0.43, -0.33) ** -0.30 (-0.40, -0.20) ** -0.20 (-0.29, -0.12) **
  Number of public health nurses Group 1 (≤16.0/100 000) -    -    -    -   
  Group 2 (16.1–26.1/100 000) 0.70 (-0.07, 1.48)   0.68 (-0.76, 2.13)   0.20 (-1.11, 1.51)   -0.92 (-1.17, 0.99)  
   Group 3 (26.2–43.3/100 000) 1.01 (0.14, 1.89) * 0.94 (-0.53, 2.41)   0.62 (-1.21, 2.46)   -0.88 (-2.80, 2.63)  
   Group 4 (≥43.4/100 000) 2.02 (0.99, 3.05) ** 1.94 (0.38, 3.51) * 1.98 (-6.83, 10.79)   -   
  Financial strength index Group 1 (≤0.28) -    -    -    -   
  Group 2 (0.29–0.48) 0.62 (-0.27, 1.51)   0.59 (-0.42, 1.60)   0.11 (-8.58, 8.81)   -   
   Group 3 (0.49–0.73) 1.21 (0.23, 2.19) * 1.10 (-0.08, 2.29)   1.69 (-7.07, 10.44)   -1.10 (-2.76, 0.56)  
   Group 4 (≥0.74) 1.62 (0.60, 2.63) ** 2.20 (0.92, 3.49) ** 1.45 (-7.32, 10.22)   -0.97 (-2.60, 0.65)  
Cervical cancer screening              
  Reminders Group 1 (2007 no–2008 no) -    -    -    -   
   Group 2 (2007 yes–2008 no) -0.15 (-0.73,0.43)   -0.03 (-0.84, 0.78)   -0.25 (-1.30, 0.80)   -0.41 (-1.34, 0.51)  
   Group 3 (2007 no–2008 yes) 0.95 (0.32, 1.57) ** 1.01 (0.18, 1.84) * 2.25 (0.89, 3.61) ** -0.37 (-1.44, 0.70)  
   Group 4 (2007 yes–2008 yes) 0.49 (0.06, 0.93) * 0.54 (-0.06, 1.14)   0.64 (-0.13, 1.42)   0.20 (-0.54, 0.94)  
  2007 Attendance rates   -0.11 (-0.13, -0.09) ** -0.11 (-0.14, -0.08) ** -0.10 (-0.15, -0.05) ** -0.13 (-0.18, -0.08) **
  Number of public health nurses Group 1 (≤16.0/100 000) -    -    -    -   
  Group 2 (16.1–26.1/100 000) 0.10 (-0.41, 0.62)   0.26 (-0.73, 1.24)   0.04 (-0.73, 0.81)   -0.76 (-1.60, 0.07)  
   Group 3 (26.2–43.3/100 000) 0.84 (0.26, 1.42) ** 1.05 (0.06, 2.05) * 0.00 (-1.07, 1.08)   -0.26 (-2.36, 1.84)  
   Group 4 (≥43.4/100 000) 1.40 (0.71, 2.09) ** 1.58 (0.52, 2.64) ** 0.30 (-4.86, 5.47)   -   
  Financial strength index Group 1 (≤0.28) -    -    -    -   
  Group 2 (0.29–0.48) 0.69 (0.09, 1.29) * 0.61 (-0.08, 1.30)   -0.01 (-5.13, 5.10)   -   
   Group 3 (0.49–0.73) 1.38 (0.71, 2.04) ** 1.38 (0.57, 2.18) ** 0.06 (-5.09, 5.20)   -0.29 (-1.57, 0.99)  
   Group 4 (≥0.74) 2.19 (1.50, 2.88) ** 2.67 (1.80, 3.54) ** 0.72 (-4.43, 5.87)   -0.10 (-1.35, 1.15)  
  1. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 (two-sided).