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Table 2 The adjusted (least-square) mean changes of the food outlets across local contextual factors in the U.S. from 2000 to 2001

From: The changing food outlet distributions and local contextual factors in the United States

   ΔSupermarkets   ΔSmall grocery stores   ΔConvenience stores  
   Expected changea 95% CI   Expected changea 95% CI   Expected changea 95% CI  
Race composition
  White-predominant - 0.010 (- 0.016 , - 0.004)   +0.001 (- 0.012 , +0.014) H +0.070 (+0.054 , +0.087) H
  Black-predominant - 0.012 (- 0.033 , +0.008)   +0.019 (- 0.028 , +0.067) H +0.026 (- 0.034 , +0.086) H
  Hispanic-predominant - 0.026 (- 0.051 , - 0.001)   +0.160 (+0.102 , +0.218) W,B,M - 0.160 (- 0.234 , - 0.086) W,B,M
  Mixed +0.004 (- 0.017 , +0.024)   - 0.020 (- 0.067 , +0.026) H - 0.004 (- 0.064 , +0.055) H
Urbanization level
  Rural - 0.010 (- 0.022 , +0.002)   +0.048 (+0.020 , +0.075)   - 0.044 (- 0.078 , - 0.009)  
  Suburban - 0.016 (- 0.031 , +0.000)   +0.027 (- 0.009 , +0.063)   +0.009 (- 0.037 , +0.055)  
  Urban - 0.008 (- 0.021 , +0.005)   +0.046 (+0.016 , +0.076)   - 0.016 (- 0.054 , +0.022)  
Foreign born population% tertiles
  1 (Bottom tertile) - 0.008 (- 0.021 , +0.005)   +0.037 (+0.006 , +0.067)   - 0.037 (- 0.075 , +0.002)  
  2 (Middle tertile) - 0.014 (- 0.026 , - 0.001)   +0.040 (+0.012 , +0.069)   - 0.014 (- 0.050 , +0.022)  
  3 (Top tertile) - 0.012 (- 0.024 , +0.000)   +0.043 (+0.016 , +0.071)   - 0.000 (- 0.036 , +0.035)  
   p trend = .049    p trend = .678    p trend = .064   
Poverty rate% tertiles
  1 (Bottom tertile) +0.001 (- 0.013 , +0.014) 2, 3 +0.029 (- 0.001 , +0.060)   - 0.015 (- 0.054 , +0.024)  
  2 (Middle tertile) - 0.016 (- 0.029 , - 0.003) 1 +0.045 (+0.016 , +0.074)   - 0.008 (- 0.045 , +0.028)  
  3 (Top tertile) - 0.018 (- 0.029 , - 0.008) 1 +0.046 (+0.022 , +0.070)   - 0.028 (- 0.058 , +0.003)  
   p trend = .002    p trend = .199    p trend = .461   
   ΔFresh/specialty food markets   ΔFull-service restaurants   ΔCarry-out restaurants  
   Expected changea 95% CI   Expected changea 95% CI   Expected changea 95% CI  
Race composition
  White-predominant +0.010 (+0.003 , +0.016)   - 0.018 (- 0.043 , +0.007)   +0.096 (+0.070 , +0.123)  
  Black-predominant - 0.011 (- 0.034 , +0.012) H - 0.050 (- 0.140 , +0.039)   +0.155 (+0.062 , +0.249)  
  Hispanic-predominant +0.050 (+0.022 , +0.078) B - 0.044 (- 0.154 , +0.067)   +0.133 (+0.018 , +0.248)  
  Mixed +0.013 (- 0.009 , +0.036)   +0.069 (- 0.020 , +0.157)   +0.177 (+0.085 , +0.270)  
Urbanization level
  Rural +0.016 (+0.002 , +0.029)   +0.007 (- 0.044 , +0.059)   +0.158 (+0.104 , +0.211)  
  Suburban +0.014 (- 0.004 , +0.032)   - 0.078 (- 0.147 , - 0.009) U +0.075 (+0.003 , +0.146) U
  Urban +0.017 (+0.002 , +0.031)   +0.038 (- 0.019 , +0.095) S +0.190 (+0.130 , +0.249) S
Foreign born population% tertiles
  1 (Bottom tertile) +0.016 (+0.001 , +0.031)   - 0.017 (- 0.075 , +0.041)   +0.151 (+0.091 , +0.212)  
  2 (Middle tertile) +0.014 (+0.000 , +0.028)   - 0.026 (- 0.080 , +0.029)   +0.123 (+0.067 , +0.180)  
  3 (Top tertile) +0.016 (+0.003 , +0.030)   +0.010 (- 0.043 , +0.062)   +0.147 (+0.092 , +0.202)  
   p trend = .988    p trend = .435    p trend = .802   
Poverty rate% tertiles
  1 (Bottom tertile) +0.018 (+0.003 , +0.033)   +0.002 (- 0.057 , +0.060)   +0.211 (+0.150 , +0.272) 2,3
  2 (Middle tertile) +0.013 (- 0.001 , +0.027)   - 0.016 (- 0.071 , +0.039)   +0.132 (+0.075 , +0.190) 1
  3 (Top tertile) +0.015 (+0.004 , +0.027)   - 0.019 (- 0.064 , +0.027)   +0.078 (+0.031 , +0.126) 1
   p trend = .600    p trend = .436    p trend < .001   
  1. aExpected change per ZCTA5 area during 2000–2001.
  2. Supermarkets are the grocery stores of > =50 employees, while small grocery stores are those of <10 employees.
  3. Linear regression models were fitted, adjusted for total population, race/ethnicity composition categories, poverty rate tertiles,% of foreign born population tertiles, urbanization categories, total business size in 2000, the change in business size from 2000 to 2001, region.
  4. W, B, H, M indicate significant difference from the White-, Black-, Hispanic-predominant or Mixed race/ethnicity areas; S, U indicate significant difference from suburban or urban areas; 1, 2, 3 indicate significant difference from the tertile 1, 2, or 3. (p < 0.005 to account for multiple pair-wise comparison).