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Table 1 The distribution of baseline sociodemographic characteristics and food outlets by local racial/ethnic composition: the ZCTA5-level analysis in the U.S. (N = 27878)

From: The changing food outlet distributions and local contextual factors in the United States

  White-predominant Black-predominant Hispanic-predominant Mixed racial/ethnic areas
areas areas areas
  n = 24719 n = 1185 n = 779 n = 1195
  Mean SE Mean SE Mean SE Mean SE
Population per ZIP code (person) 8644 (73) 15421 (489) 23586 (866) 21468 (592)
Population density (person/mi2) 0.80 (0.02) 3.53 (0.24) 5.44 (0.43) 4.75 (0.24)
Average race/ethnicity proportion         
  White 88.45 (0.08) 24.65 (0.42) 20.05 (0.46) 33.49 (0.44)
  Black 4.37 (0.05) 69.21 (0.41) 5.05 (0.31) 19.06 (0.51)
  Hispanic 3.92 (0.04) 3.80 (0.19) 70.96 (0.51) 21.23 (0.49)
  Asian 1.11 (0.02) 0.75 (0.04) 2.08 (0.14) 6.98 (0.33)
Average proportion foreign born population 3.77 (0.03) 4.28 (0.22) 28.46 (0.63) 17.34 (0.45)
Median income (K) 41.56 (0.10) 27.13 (0.29) 30.10 (0.33) 35.63 (0.42)
Poverty rate 11.12 (0.05) 27.01 (0.33) 25.78 (0.37) 22.00 (0.38)
Unemployment rate 5.14 (0.02) 11.71 (0.20) 11.34 (0.22) 10.51 (0.23)
Urbanization level (distribution of three categories) (%)       
  Urban 28% (0.3%) 53% (1.4%) 57% (1.8%) 62% (1.4%)
  Suburban 11% (0.2%) 9% (0.8%) 16% (1.3%) 8% (0.8%)
  Rural 61% (0.3%) 38% (1.4%) 27% (1.6%) 29% (1.3%)
Average number (per ZCTA5) of stores/business in 2000      
Total business 220.70 (2.31) 262.13 (9.46) 394.65 (17.10) 461.28 (15.65)
Total grocery stores 1.96 (0.02) 4.71 (0.17) 6.36 (0.29) 5.54 (0.19)
  Supermarket 0.59 (0.01) 0.63 (0.03) 1.00 (0.05) 1.08 (0.04)
  Small size grocery stores 0.85 (0.01) 3.24 (0.14) 4.08 (0.23) 3.45 (0.15)
Fresh/specialty food stores 0.32 (0.01) 0.77 (0.05) 1.16 (0.08) 1.00 (0.06)
Convenience stores 3.50 (0.03) 5.56 (0.19) 6.36 (0.25) 6.23 (0.20)
Full-service restaurants 6.15 (0.07) 5.51 (0.24) 10.47 (0.46) 12.87 (0.49)
Carry-out food stores 6.59 (0.07) 9.04 (0.34) 13.81 (0.57) 15.76 (0.52)
Average changed number (per ZCTA5) of stores during 2000 and 2001     
Total business +0.65 (0.08) -3.06 (0.42) +0.21 (0.57) -0.75 (0.61)
Total grocery stores -0.01 (0.004) -0.05 (0.03) +0.13 (0.05) +0.04 (0.04)
  Supermarkets -0.01 (0.002) -0.04 (0.01) -0.03 (0.02) -0.01 (0.01)
  Small size grocery stores +0.01 (0.004) +0.01 (0.03) +0.19 (0.05) +0.02 (0.04)
Fresh/specialty food markets +0.01 (0.002) -0.01 (0.01) +0.05 (0.03) +0.02 (0.02)
Convenience stores +0.06 (0.01) +0.02 (0.04) -0.13 (0.05) +0.01 (0.04)
Full-service restaurants +0.00 (0.01) -0.07 (0.04) +0.00 (0.07) +0.11 (0.06)
Carry-out food stores +0.11 (0.01) +0.07 (0.05) +0.21 (0.07) +0.28 (0.07)
  1. *ANOVA test p = 0.0584; p values for all the other variables are <0.05.
  2. Supermarkets are the grocery stores of > =50 employees, while small grocery stores are those of <10 employees.
  3. ZCTA: Zip-code Tabulation Area.