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Table 2 Odds ratios from multinomial logistic regression of family income trajectory and early-life risk factors for BMI z-score trajectory classification

From: Changes in family income status and the development of overweight and obesity from 2 to 15 years: a longitudinal study

  Obese Become-overweight Overweight-stable
  n = 69 n = 92 n = 119
  Unadjusted Adjusteda Unadjusted Adjusteda Unadjusted Adjusteda
  OR CI OR CI OR CI OR CI OR CI OR CI
Income trajectory             
  Persistent low-income 2.26 0.87, 5.88 1.38 0.44, 4.33 1.61 0.69, 3.88 1.33 0.53, 3.33 3.00 1.51, 5.98 2.55 1.03, 5.42
  Downwardly-mobile 2.99 1.51, 5.93 2.36 1.12, 5.77 1.22 0.61, 2.43 1.04 0.50, 2.18 0.95 0.48, 1.90 0.82 0.38, 1.79
  Upwardly-mobile 1.62 0.74, 3.52 1.15 0.46, 2.92 0.73 0.33, 1.61 0.59 0.25, 1.39 0.89 0.45, 1.77 0.68 0.31, 1.50
  Not low-income 1.00 - 1.00 - 1.00 - 1.00 - 1.00 - 1.00 -
Maternal overweight/obesity             
  Yes 7.02 3.57, 13.77 8.31 3.80, 18.2 2.85 1.69, 4.78 2.37 1.34, 4.22 1.59 1.00, 2.51 1.79 1.02, 3.14
  No 1.00 - 1.00 - 1.00 - 1.00 - 1.00 - 1.00 -
Gestational weight gain             
  Excessive 1.21 0.67, 2.19 0.49 0.23, 1.05 2.37 1.28, 4.38 2.01 1.01, 4.00 0.82 0.50, 1.35 0.61 0.33, 1.12
  Inadequate 0.56 0.28, 1.40 0.58 0.21, 1.66 1.53 0.70, 3.33 1.47 0.64, 3.37 0.54 0.27, 1.08 0.68 0.31, 1.50
  Adequate 1.00 - 1.00 - 1.00 - 1.00 - 1.00 - 1.00 -
Early-life rapid weight gain trajectory             
  High-rising 7.03 3.05, 16.22 5.42 2.18, 13.44 1.71 0.84, 3.49 1.64 0.77, 3.49 3.32 1.85, 5.96 3.87 2.07, 7.26
  Low-rising 0.77 0.31, 1.95 0.50 0.19, 1.36 1.00 0.54, 1.89 0.90 0.46, 1.77 0.29 0.14, 0.58 0.30 0.15, 0.63
  Stable 1.00 - 1.00 - 1.00 - 1.00 - 1.00 - 1.00 -
Smoking during pregnancy b             
  Yes 2.18 1.18, 4.03 - - 0.84 0.42, 1.67 - - 1.37 0.78, 2.39 - -
  No 1.00 - 1.00 - 1.00 - 1.00 - 1.00 - 1.00 -
Breastfeeding duration b             
  < 2 months 1.59 0.79, 3.20 - - 1.09 0.59, 2.04 - - 1.04 0.59, 1.84 - -
  2 to < 4 months 1.23 0.48, 3.12 - - 1.19 0.54, 2.64 - - 0.82 0.38, 1.80 - -
  4 to < 8 months 0.64 0.25, 1.63 - - 0.64 0.29, 1.41 - - 0.81 0.41, 1.57 - -
  ≥ 8 months 1.00 - 1.00 - 1.00 - 1.00 - 1.00 - 1.00 -
  1. Reference category for BMI z-score trajectory is not-overweight (n = 315).
  2. aMulitnomial logistic regression odds ratios are adjusted for multiparious, maternal age, sex of child, birth weight quartile, asthma medication use, ADD medicaiton use, antidepressant medication use, puberty status.
  3. bSmoking during pregnancy was removed from the multivariate model because it was completely mediated by early-life rapid weight gain trajectory; breastfeeding was removed because it was not associated with BMI trajectories.
  4. Bold denotes 95% CI for odds ratios that do not cross 1.