Hypothesised causal pathways between education, income and blood pressure. Squares and circles represent observed and latent variables, respectively. Arrows indicate hypothesised causal effects. Dashed squares indicate each of the multiple readings from which the values of the latent variables systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and resting heart rate (HR) are inferred. Race, age and use of antihypertensive medication are omitted from the diagram, but taken into account as possible confounders in the model.