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Table 3 Outcomes and study design of selected studies

From: Health promotion interventions for increasing stroke awareness in ethnic minorities: a systematic review of the literature

ID Study Study design Evaluation method Reported effectivenessa
1 Boden Albala 2010 [44] Randomized controlled trial (RCT) Article reports only on protocol and baseline Article reports only on protocol and baseline
2 Chan 2008 [45] RCT Pre-post test Yes
3 Covington 2010 [46] Case study None Not applicable
4 Dromerick 2011 [47] RCT Article reports only on protocol and baseline Article reports only on protocol and baseline
5 Duraski 2006 [49]; Duraski 2003 [48] Case study Pre-post test Yes
6 Duraski 2007 [50] Case study None Not applicable
7 Frank 2008 [51] Case study Pre-post test No
8 Kalenderian 2009 [53] Case study None Not applicable
9 Kleindorfer 2008 [54] Case study Pre-post test Yes
10 Miller 2003 [55] Case study (repeated measures design with 3 groups) Pre-post test No effectiveness for treatment seeking behaviour (call EMS); unknown effectiveness for knowledge of stroke symptoms
11 Morgenstern 2007 [56]; Gonzales 2007 [52]; Mullen Conley 2010 [29] RCT Pre-post test Yes for children; unknown for parents
12 Villablanca 2009 [57] Case study None (only for outcomes other than stroke symptoms) Not applicable
13 Williams 2008 [58] Case study Pre-post test Yes
14 Williams 2012 [59] Case study Pre-post test Yes
15 Williamson 2009 [60] Case study None Not applicable
  1. aEffectiveness of an intervention refers to its ability to improve the knowledge of stroke symptoms and the intention to call 999 in target populations.