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Table 1 Thematic analysis of children’s stories

From: Children’s representations of school support for HIV-affected peers in rural Zimbabwe

Organising theme Basic theme Issues discussed Freq.
Global theme: how challenges of HIV-affected children manifest within the school context
HIV-affected households Household looks visibly poor Dirty, lack of basic essentials 13%
  Positive perception of household Beautiful household, clean, livestock 2%
HIV-affected parents AIDS visible through behaviour of parents Sleeping, unable to work, visibly sick 6%
Homes of HIV-affected children Social neglect in household Isolated, abused, seen as burdens 20%
  Social support in household Child cared for and happy in household 1%
Responsibilities of HIV-affected children Caregiving Bathing, administering medicine, feeding 9%
  Household chores Fetching water, ploughing fields, cooking 30%
  Chores compromise health & well-being of child Chores carried out by sick child, chores beyond child’s capability, chores hinder socialisation 27%
  Child engaged in income generation activities Agricultural work, work for neighbours 2%
Global theme: how challenges of HIV-affected children manifest within the school context
Impact on school attendance School drop out/late for school Due to sick parents/sick child, unable to pay fees, chores 15%
Material deprivation Lack of school equipment Lack of uniform, books, pens 14%
  Lack of food Child comes to school without food 20%
  Child looks visibly poor Torn clothes, Lack of shoes, Dirty 19%
Physical health Symptoms of poor physical health Pain, Tired/falling asleep at school, fainting, vomiting 18%
  Child looks visibly sick Skinny, cracked lips 10%
  Child visits health clinics Hospital visits 9%
Emotional health Symptoms of poor emotional health Cries, sad, miserable 30%
Global theme: the impact of schools on children’s coping
School as a negative context for HIV-affected children Teacher’s negative response to HIV-affected children Teacher sends child away from school 2%
   Teacher abuses child  
  Social exclusion Bullying, lack of friends/Isolation, stigmatisation 30%
Schools as a source of support for HIV-affected children Bridges between schools and outside sources of support (total 12%) Referrals to health clinics 3%
   References to support from NGOs, CBOs, BEAM 9%
  Teacher support (total 30%) Material support: school expenses (fees, books), food/water 24%
   Emotional support: comfort, encourage inclusion, counselling 6%
  Peer support (total 20%) Material support: Share school resources (books, pens), clothes, food 9%
   Emotional support: Comfort, playing, help with chores 11%
  School as distraction from life tragedies Learning/playing distraction from problems 5%
  Schools as routes to positive identities Positive perceptions of children 15%