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Table 4 Demographic characteristics, risk behavior, knowledge, and intentions across the Intervention group and control group participants

From: Be smart against cancer! A school-based program covering cancer-related risk behavior

  Total N = 235 CG IG Tests for significance
n = 83 n = 152  
   CG pre CG post* IG pre IG post*  
Demographic characteristics       Group difference
Gender       χ2(1) = .74 p = 0.41
Male [n (%)] 139 (59) 46 (55) - 93 (61) -
Female [n (%)] 96 (41) 37 (45) - 59 (39) -
Age [mean (SD)] 13 (0.7) 13 (0.5) - 13 (0.7) - t (1,219) = −0.91 p = .27
Risk behavior [n (%)]       Group difference
Physical inactivity 32 (14) 12 (15) - 20 (13) - χ2(1) = 0.08 p = .84
No sun protection 11 (5) 3 (4) - 8 (5) - χ2(1) = 0.33 p = .75
Smoking 15 (6) 7 (8) - 8 (5) - χ2(1) = 0.88 p = .41
Insufficient intake of fruits/vegetables 41 (17) 18 (22) - 23 (15) - χ2(1) = 1.60 p = .21
Daily intake of sweets 59 (25) 23 (28) - 36 (24) - χ2(1) = 0.43 p = .53
Drinking alcohol 133 (57) 53 (65) - 80 (53) - χ2(1) = 3.53 p = .07
Risk score [n (%)]       Group difference
0 66 (29) 20 (25) - 46 (31) -  
1 84 (36) 25 (31) - 59 (39) -  
2 50 (22) 23 (28) - 27 (18) -  
3 23 (10) 11 (14) - 12 (8) -  
4 8 (3) 2 (2) - 6 (4) -  
5 0 0 - 0 -  
6 0 0 - 0 -  
Mean (SD) 1.2 (1.1) 1.2 (1.1) - 1.4 (1.1) - F (1,229) = 2.40 p = .12
Knowledge [mean (SD)] - 13.4 (2.6) 13.2 (2.7) 12.8 (2.5) 17.5 (2.1) Group difference at pre-test F(1,233) = 2.38 p = .12
Main effect: Experimental group F(5,975) = 136.22 p < .001
Main effect: Risk behavior F(212,696) = 0.09 p = .76
Interaction: Group x Risk behavior F(212,745) = 2.03 p = .16
Intention [mean (SD)] - 13.6 (3.2) 13.3 (3.6) 14.6 (2.5) 15.7 (2.5) Group difference at pre-test F(1,229) = 4.14 p = .04
Main effect: Experimental group F(5,772) = 16.93 p < .001
Main effect: Risk behavior F(199,196) = 8.32 p < .01
Interaction: Group x Risk behavior F(199,54) = 0.33 p = 0.57
  1. *Regarding Demographic characteristics, Risk behavior and Risk-score only pretest data are analyzed.