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Table 2 Products reported as used by coffee and vegetable farmers in Arumeru district

From: Farmers' knowledge, practices and injuries associated with pesticide exposure in rural farming villages in Tanzania

Active ingredient Chemical group WHO Class Frequency (n = 121) Percentage (%)
Copper Inorganic III 68 56.2
Endosulfan Organochlorine II 66 54.5
Mancozeb Dithiocarbamate U 65 53.7
Profenofos Organophosphate II 60 49.6
Chlorpyrifos Organophosphate II 50 41.3
Lambda Cyhalothrin Pyrethroids II 25 20.7
Abamectin Ivamectins IV (EPA)* 23 19.0
Others (Unclassified) - - 21 17.4
Cypermethrin Pyrethroids II 16 13.2
Unknown - - 14 11.6
Triadimefon Triazole III 13 10.7
Propineb Dithiocarbamate U 13 10.7
Metalaxyl Phenylamide III 11 9.1
Chlorothalonil Chloronitrile U 10 8.3
Dimethoate Organophosphate II 10 8.3
Deltamethrin Pyrethroids II 9 7.4
Fenitrothion Organophosphate II 6 5.0
Dip - - 5 4.1
Others**    9 7.4
  1. WHO Class Ia: Extremely hazardous, Ib: Highly hazardous.
  2. II: Moderately hazardous, III: Slightly hazardous.
  3. IV: Unlikely to present acute hazard under normal use condition.
  4. *EPA – Environmental Protection Agency.
  5. **Pirimiphos methyl (n = 3), Sulphur (n = 2), Novaluron (n = 2) and Amitraz (n = 2).