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Table 5 Likelihood of having cardiovascular risk factors

From: Snacking patterns, diet quality, and cardiovascular risk factors in adults

  Snacking patterns*
CVRF+odds ratio (LCL, UCL)** Misc. snacks (n = 3,230) Cakes/Cookies/Pastries (n = 2,180) Sweets (n = 1,495) Vegetables/Legumes (n = 1,524) Alcohol (n = 1,572) Milk desserts (n = 1,355) Crackers/Salty snacks (n = 1,293) Soft drinks (n = 1,088) Other grains (n = 1,190) Whole fruit (n = 913) Coffee/Tea (n = 295)
Elevated BP 1.04 (0.82, 1.31) 0.89 (0.68, 1.16) 1.02 (0.76, 1.37) 1.09 (0.77, 1.53) 0.85 (0.59, 1.23) 1.04 (0.78, 1.39) 1.13 (0.79, 1.61) 1.09 (0.75, 1.60) 0.98 (0.67, 1.43) 0.94 (0.64, 1.37) 0.97 (0.58, 1.61)
Elevated Glucose 1.08 (0.75, 1.55) 1.06 (0.74, 1.52) 0.87 (0.57, 1.34) 1.34 (0.96, 1.88) 0.86 (0.56, 1.34) 1.16 (0.78, 1.71) 1.01 (0.63, 1.60) 0.89 (0.55, 1.45) 1.30 (0.81, 2.09) 1.30 (0.73, 2.32) 0.58 (0.31, 1.11)
Elevated LDL-C 0.84 (0.61, 1.16) 1.02 (0.71, 1.45) 0.99 (0.70, 1.40) 1.12 (0.80, 1.58) 0.84 (0.53, 1.33) 0.97 (0.65, 1.44) 0.87 (0.56, 1.36) 1.13 (0.70, 1.82) 0.90 (0.53, 1.52) 0.93 (0.61, 1.42) 1.04 (0.53, 2.02)
Decreased HDL-C 0.96 (0.77, 1.19) 0.94 (0.74, 1.20) 1.23 (0.95, 1.59) 0.89 (0.68, 1.17) 0.88 (0.60, 1.29) 0.97 (0.73, 1.30) 1.08 (0.85, 1.37) 1.40 (0.98, 1.99) 0.94 (0.68, 1.31) 1.08 (0.81, 1.44) 1.15 (0.63, 2.11)
Elevated TAG 1.00 (0.73, 1.37) 0.89 (0.64, 1.23) 1.10 (0.75, 1.63) 0.97 (0.67, 1.40) 0.89 (0.58, 1.36) 0.85 (0.61, 1.19) 1.09 (0.72, 1.65) 1.29 (0.85, 1.98) 1.00 (0.62, 1.60) 0.89 (0.58, 1.36) 0.94 (0.45, 1.93)
Elevated WC 0.95 (0.77, 1.17) 0.87 (0.67, 1.13) 0.93 (0.70, 1.25) 0.88 (0.61, 1.26) 0.74 (0.55, 1.00) 0.92 (0.70, 1.21) 0.99 (0.75, 1.29) 1.03 (0.75, 1.41) 1.04 (0.75, 1.45) 0.69 (0.46, 1.02) 0.92 (0.50, 1.68)
Elevated OB 0.97 (0.78, 1.22) 0.91 (0.73, 1.15) 0.95 (0.74, 1.21) 0.89 (0.67, 1.18) 0.85 (0.60, 1.19) 0.97 (0.72, 1.29) 1.04 (0.81, 1.33) 1.03 (0.76, 1.39) 0.92 (0.69, 1.22) 0.91 (0.66, 1.24) 0.85 (0.54, 1.34)
Elevated OW 0.99 (0.80, 1.23) 1.09 (0.86, 1.38) 0.96 (0.72, 1.26) 1.00 (0.78, 1.29) 0.99 (0.75, 1.30) 1.02 (0.79, 1.32) 1.00 (0.76, 1.33) 1.00 (0.77, 1.32) 0.96 (0.76, 1.23) 0.94 (0.68, 1.29) 1.29 (0.80, 2.07)
Elevated OW/OB 0.95 (0.76, 1.20) 0.99 (0.76, 1.29) 0.91 (0.68, 1.21) 0.89 (0.66, 1.19) 0.84 (0.61, 1.16) 0.99 (0.77, 1.27) 1.05 (0.78, 1.39) 1.03 (0.75, 1.41) 0.88 (0.64, 1.21) 0.84 (0.60, 1.17) 1.12 (0.64, 1.96)
  1. *Reference group is No Snacks (n = 2853, 13%).
  2. **Adjusted for ethnicity, gender, age, estimated energy ratio (kcal/estimated energy requirement), poverty income ratio, Body Mass Index, Physical Activity, smoking, and Alcohol. Body Mass Index (BMI) was controlled for all of the CVRF except for BMI.
  3. **Statistically different from No Snacks, bolded results indicate significant findings using Bonferroni correction p ≤ 0.0042.
  4. +Definition of elevated CVRF: Overweight/obesity was defined as a BMI ≥ 25. Having ≥3 of the following association factors: abdominal obesity, waist circumference ≥ 102 cm (males), ≥88 cm (females); elevated blood pressure, SBP ≥ 130 mmHg or DBP ≥85 mmHg or antihypertensive medication use; reduced serum HDL-C, <40 mg/dL (males), <50 mg/dL (females) or medication use for reduced HDL-C; elevated serum triacylglycerides, ≥ 150 mg/dL or medication use for elevated TAG; elevated fasting plasma or serum glucose, ≥100 mg/dL or medication use for elevated glucose.
  5. Abbreviations used: BP, Blood pressure; LDL-C, Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; HDL-C, High-density lipoprotein cholesterol; TAG, Triacylglycerides; WC, Waist circumference; OB, Obese; OW, Overweight; OW/OB, Overweight/obese; LCL, Lower Confidence Level; UCL, Upper Confidence Level.