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Table 4 Relationship between snacking patterns and weight by adults ≥19 years of age

From: Snacking patterns, diet quality, and cardiovascular risk factors in adults

  Weight status1
Snacking pattern BMI LSM (SE) Waist circumference, cm LSM (SE)
Miscellaneous snacks (n = 3230) 28.39 (0.19) 97.10 (0.47)
No snacks (n = 2853) 28.54 (0.18) 97.66 (0.48)
Cakes/Cookies/Pastries (n = 2180) 28.23 (0.16) 97.66 (0.48)
Sweets (n = 1495) 28.20 (0.23) 96.80 (0.43)
Vegetables/Legumes (n = 1524) 28.34 (0.26) 96.92 (0.60)
Alcohol (n = 1572) 27.74 (0.20)§ 97.12 (0.63)
Milk desserts (n = 1355) 28.30 (0.24) 95.72 (0.49)§
Crackers/Salty snacks (n = 1293) 28.49 (0.21) 97.91 (0.49)
Soft drinks (n = 1088) 28.45 (0.25) 97.78 (0.65)
Other grains (n = 1190) 28.24 (0.29) 97.20 (0.63)
Whole fruit (n = 913) 28.38 (0.38) 96.89 (0.77)
Coffee/Tea (n = 295) 29.18 (0.68) 98.24 (1.26)
  1. 1Covariates included age, gender, race/ethnicity, poverty income ratio, current smoking status, alcohol intake, and physical activity.
  2. §Statistically different from No Snacks with the Bonferroni correction effective p ≤ 0.0042.