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Table 3 Consumption of nutrients of public health concern and nutrients under-consumed by snacking patterns 1 in adults ≥19 years of age

From: Snacking patterns, diet quality, and cardiovascular risk factors in adults

  Snacking patterns LSM (SE)
  Misc. snacks (n = 3,230) No snacks** (n = 2,853) Cakes/Cookies/Pastries (n = 2,180) Sweets (n = 1,495) Vegetables/Legumes (n = 1,524) Alcohol (n = 1,572) Milk desserts (n = 1,355) Crackers/Salty snacks (n = 1,293) Soft drinks (n = 1,088) Other grains (n = 1,190) Whole fruit (n = 913) Coffee/Tea (n = 295)
Nutrients of Public Health Concern
Potassium (mg) 2883.71 (27.34)* 2612.52 (27.22) 2521.52 (23.69) 2633.29 (29.51) 3028.60 (37.96)* 2773.98 (34.49)* 2765.11 (39.83)* 2568.00 (34.26) 2383.33 (30.03)* 2660.57 (47.52) 3047.08 (45.95)* 2876.64 (55.98)*
Calcium (mg) 1043.12 (13.55)* 892.64 (13.40) 854.50 (13.01) 852.62 (12.22) 902.69 (20.99) 901.23 (18.02) 949.75 (16.76) 842.08 (17.94) 788.49 (21.91)* 939.26 (22.54) 934.96 (22.46) 958.84 (34.72)
Vitamin D (mcg) 5.50 (0.15)* 4.12 (0.14) 4.15 (0.15) 3.92 (0.13) 4.69 (0.20) 4.41 (0.20) 4.20 (0.15) 3.86 (0.19) 3.89 (0.22) 4.84 (0.33) 4.92 (0.32) 5.18 (0.47)
Fiber (gm) 15.56 (0.19) 14.98 (0.24) 15.02 (0.24) 15.58 (0.30) 18.80 (0.37)* 15.28 (0.31) 15.40 (0.32) 16.77 (0.33)* 13.55 (0.32) 16.49 (0.38)* 19.48 (0.41)* 16.22 (0.87)
Nutrients under-consumed
Vitamin A (mcg) 656.07 (12.68)* 577.56 (12.86) 630.15 (19.46) 561.44 (17.36) 654.57 (35.65) 615.13 (19.82)* 681.73 (18.63)* 583.58 (18.97) 529.05 (35.54) 651.46 (60.74) 646.81 (23.89) 650.25 (32.91)
Vitamin C (mcg) 109.10 (3.01)* 84.34 (2.69) 81.62 (2.54) 81.39 (3.82) 87.50 (3.55) 81.61 (3.06) 87.58 (4.06) 79.93 (3.48) 68.26 (3.24)* 86.92 (5.35) 123.05 (5.03)* 74.40 (4.07)
Vitamin K (mcg) 95.34 (3.22) 94.33 (4.10) 92.44 (4.90) 91.61 (4.23) 117.49 (7.21) 101.43 (7.55) 84.15 (4.97) 90.63 (5.35) 80.85 (4.88) 96.54 (4.47) 120.76 (9.29) 111.13 (11.48)
Folate (mcg) 552.67 (8.58) 536.50 (9.96) 546.60 (11.73) 504.67 (11.16) 555.53 (12.32) 547.01 (13.91) 531.35 (15.69) 553.03 (11.52) 473.24 (10.45)* 617.87 (19.54) 572.67 (13.40) 547.89 (20.17
Magnesium (mg) 299.13 (2.63) 276.51 (2.80) 269.62 (2.95) 277.84 (3.46) 360.62 (7.46)* 290.43 (4.56) 282.62 (3.86) 292.21 (3.62)* 245.69 (3.32)* 287.32 (4.72) 307.46 (5.58)* 327.46 (11.89)*
  1. 1Covariates: Age, gender, race/ethnicity, poverty income ratio grouped into three categories as (<1.25, 1.25–3.49, and >3.49), current smoking status (yes/no) (adults only), physical activity level (sedentary, moderate and vigorous), alcohol intake (g/d), energy intake for nutrient related variables.
  2. *Statistically different from No Snacks with the Bonferroni correction effective p ≤ 0.0042.
  3. **Reference group is No Snacks.