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Table 2 Consumption of energy and nutrients to limit by snacking patterns 1 in adults ≥19 years of age

From: Snacking patterns, diet quality, and cardiovascular risk factors in adults

  Snacking Patterns LSM (SE)
Energy & nutrients to limit Misc. snacks (n = 3,230) No snacks** (n = 2,853) Cakes/Cookies/Pastries (n = 2,180) Sweets (n = 1,495) Vegetables/Legumes (n = 1,524) Alcohol (n = 1,572) Milk desserts (n = 1,355) Crackers/Salty snacks (n = 1,293) Soft drinks (n = 1,088) Other grains (n = 1,190) Whole fruit (n = 913) Coffee/Tea (n = 295)
Total energy (kJ)1 9538.66 (100.07)* 7936.84 (107.69) 9959.07 (104.13)* 9301.59 (135.45)* 9812.11 (134.32)* 8206.73 (145.58) 9767.43 (145.75)* 8968.55 (130.09)* 8908.05 (179.45) 10152.81 (205.96)* 8083.38 (146.63) 8455.73 (287.48)
Saturated fatty acid (g)1 27.59 (0.27) 28.03 (0.27) 26.61 (0.30)* 28.55 (0.32) 26.37 (0.32)* 27.60 (0.39) 30.70 (0.39)* 26.02 (0.29)* 25.74 (0.42)* 25.80 (0.45)* 25.98 (0.21)* 28.37 (0.99)
Solid fat (g)1 46.91 (0.52) 49.05 (0.65) 49.83 (0.57) 45.83 (0.61)* 39.49 (0.74)* 47.82 (0.78) 50.64 (0.67) 45.11 (0.75)* 44.97 (0.81)* 45.22 (0.96)* 44.95 (0.89)* 47.87 (1.43)
Added sugars (tsp.)1 17.94 (0.40) 18.68 (0.51) 23.17 (0.52)* 22.77 (0.50)* 15.61 (0.58)* 18.93 (0.59) 21.58 (0.55)* 16.66 (0.51)* 28.74 (0.73)* 16.35 (0.56)* 15.13 (0.46)* 18.63 (1.08)
Sodium (mg)1 3568.88 (27.24) 3626.67 (36.25) 3321.33 (35.87)* 3359.26 (41.83)* 3400.26 (44.34)* 3537.85 (46.27) 3245.11 (44.52)* 3752.89 (49.17) 3245.54 (46.25)* 3638.47 (57.04) 3612.98 (44.20) 3666.26 (129.71)
  1. 1kj = kilojoules(1 kcal = 4.187 kj). Covariates: Age, gender, race/ethnicity, poverty income ratio grouped into three categories as (<1.25, 1.25–3.49, and >3.49), current smoking status (yes/no), physical activity level (sedentary, moderate and vigorous), alcohol intake (g/d), energy intake for nutrient related variables.
  2. *Statistically different from No Snacks; with the Bonferroni correction effective p ≤ 0.0042.
  3. **Reference group is No Snacks.