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Table 3 Odds ratio of socioeconomic status in childhood and covariates for major depression by discrete-time survival analysis, women

From: Association of socioeconomic status in childhood with major depression and generalized anxiety disorder: results from the World Mental Health Japan survey 2002–2006

    Model 1 (univariate, adjusted for age) Model 2 (+childhood characteristics) Model 3 (+SES in adult)
    OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
SES in childhood Parental education 0-11 years ref   ref   ref  
   12 years 1.73 (0.97-3.09) 1.80 (1.01-3.21) 1.68 (0.97-2.92)
   13+ years 1.84 (1.01-3.33) 1.85 (1.00-3.42) 1.81 (1.03-3.18)
   Unknown 0.84 (0.52-1.37) 0.88 (0.54-1.44) 0.94 (0.56-1.55)
Childhood characteristics Parental mental illness Yes    2.48 (1.16-5.32) 2.17 (0.93-5.09)
   No    ref   ref  
  Physical illness Yes    1.27 (0.51-3.19) 1.28 (0.50-3.32)
   No    ref   ref  
SES in adulthood Education 0-11 years      ref  
   12 years      2.39 (1.19-4.81)
   13-15 years      1.95 (0.86-4.46)
   16+ years      2.45 (0.92-6.49)
  Annual household income <3 million yen      ref  
   3- < 10 million yen      0.94 (0.60-1.47)
   10+ million yen      1.12 (0.59-2.14)
  1. Age was adjusted for all analysis. Values in bold are significant at the p = 0.05 level.