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Table 2 Odds ratio of socioeconomic status in childhood and covariates for major depression by discrete-time survival analysis, men

From: Association of socioeconomic status in childhood with major depression and generalized anxiety disorder: results from the World Mental Health Japan survey 2002–2006

    Model 1 (univariate, adjusted for age) Model 2 (+childhood characteristics) Model 3 (+SES in adult)
    OR 95% CI OR 95% CI OR 95% CI
SES in childhood Parental education 0-11 years ref   ref   ref  
   12 years 1.18 (0.51-2.76) 1.24 (0.54-2.86) 1.04 (0.48-2.25)
   13+ years 0.83 (0.32-2.18) 0.77 (0.29-2.06) 0.51 (0.19-1.34)
   Unknown 1.12 (0.50-2.53) 1.17 (0.51-2.64) 1.21 (0.52-2.78)
Childhood characteristics Parental mental illness Yes    2.23 (0.64-7.74) 2.00 (0.56-7.11)
   No    ref   ref  
  Physical illness Yes    2.90 (1.02-8.28) 2.89 (1.00-8.32)
   No    ref   ref  
SES in adulthood Education 0-11 years      ref  
   12 years      1.05 (0.35-3.18)
   13-15 years      1.59 (0.45-5.65)
   16+ years      3.14 (1.08-9.14)
  Annual household income <3 million yen      ref  
   3- < 10 million yen      0.91 (0.39-2.09)
   10+ million yen      0.79 (0.31-2.02)
  1. Age was adjusted for all analysis. Values in bold are significant at the p = 0.05 level.