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Table 4 Logistic regression analysis for socio-demographic, mental illness, and substance use-related outcomes based on ACE total score (n = 364)

From: Setting the stage for chronic health problems: cumulative childhood adversity among homeless adults with mental illness in Vancouver, British Columbia

Outcome1 Unadjusted OR (95% CI) p value Adjusted OR (95% CI)2 p value
Duration of homelessness     
Cumulative lifetime (>3 years) 1.10 (0.94, 1.09) 0.710   
Longest single episode (>1 year) 1.09 (1.01, 1.17) 0.032* 1.07 (0.99, 1.16) 0.108+
Age first homeless (<25 years) 1.03 (0.96, 1.11) 0.412   
Mental disorder     
Less severe cluster 1.14 (1.05, 1.23) 0.001** 1.13 (1.04, 1.23) 0.004**
Severe cluster 0.96 (0.88, 1.04) 0.313   
Alcohol dependence 1.13 (1.04, 1.23) 0.006** 1.11 (1.01, 1.21) 0.030*
Substance dependence 1.11 (1.02, 1.19) 0.012* 1.09 (1.00, 1.19) 0.040*
High suicidality 1.10 (1.01, 1.21) 0.039* 1.11 (1.01, 1.23) 0.032*
Multiple (≥2) mental disorders 1.15 (1.07, 1.24) <0.001*** 1.15 (1.06, 1.24) 0.001**
Physical health     
Blood-borne infectious diseases (HIV/HCV/HBV) 1.11 (1.03, 1.21) 0.008** 1.09 (1.01, 1.19) 0.039*
Multiple (≥3) physical illness 1.17 (1.07, 1.27) 0.001** 1.15 (1.05, 1.26) 0.015*
Overall health (poor) 1.12 (1.01, 1.25) 0.030* 1.12 (1.00, 1.25) 0.047*
Substance use     
Age first drunk (<14 years) 1.19 (1.10, 1.29) <0.001*** 1.17 (1.08, 1.28) <0.001***
Age of first drug use (<14 years) 1.20 (1.10, 1.30) <0.001*** 1.20 (1.10, 1.31) <0.001***
IV drug use 1.07 (0.98, 1.18) 0.149   
Daily substance use 1.12 (1.03, 1.22) 0.007** 1.10 (1.01, 1.20) 0.027*
Daily illicit drug use 1.15 (1.06, 1.25) 0.001** 1.14 (1.04, 1.25) 0.005**
Daily hard drug use (no marijuana) 1.09 (0.98, 1.20) 0.104+ 1.05 (0.95, 1.17) 0.349
Weekly alcohol use 1.08 (0.99, 1.18) 0.089+ 1.06 (0.97, 1.16) 0.191
Daily marijuana use 1.14 (1.02, 1.27) 0.017* 1.16 (1.04, 1.31) 0.010*
Poly-substance (≥3) use 1.08 (1.00, 1.17) 0.057+ 1.07 (0.99, 1.17) 0.099+
Poly-drug (≥3) use 1.07 (0.98, 1.17) 0.123   
Poly-drug (≥2) use 1.05 (0.97, 1.13) 0.257   
  1. *p ≤ 0.05 **p ≤ 0.01 ***p ≤ 0.001 + p ≤ 0.10.
  2. 1Separate binary logistic regression analyses (univariate and multivariable) were conducted for each outcome using ACE total score (continuous measure) as an independent variable.
  3. 2Each multivariable model was controlled for age (continuous), gender (male vs. female), ethnicity (Aboriginal, Caucasian, Other), need level (High vs. Moderate), and education (completed vs. incomplete high school).
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