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Table 3 ACE total score by socio-demographic, physical health, mental disorder and substance use variables (n = 364)

From: Setting the stage for chronic health problems: cumulative childhood adversity among homeless adults with mental illness in Vancouver, British Columbia

Variable Mean (SD) P value
Socio-demographic variables   
Need Level   
High 3.8 (2.8) 0.423
Moderate 4.0 (2.8)  
Gender   
Male 3.7 (2.8) 0.071+
Female 4.3 (2.8)  
Age at enrolment   
19-24 years 3.5 (2.7) 0.672
25-44 years 4.0 (2.8)  
> 44 years 3.8 (2.8)  
Ethnicity   
Aboriginal 4.8 (3.0) 0.004**
White 3.9 (2.7)  
Other 3.4 (2.7)  
Education   
Completed high school 3.3 (2.6) 0.001***
Incomplete high school 4.3 (2.8)  
Marital status   
Single (never married) 3.8 (2.6) 0.204
Other 4.2 (3.1)  
Housing status   
Precariously housed 3.9 (2.8) 0.570
Absolutely homeless 3.7 (2.8)  
Duration of homelessness (lifetime)   
> 36 months 3.8 (2.7) 0.711
≤ 36 months 3.9 (2.8)  
Duration of homelessness (longest single episode)   
> 12 months 3.6 (2.7) 0.032*
≤ 12 months 4.2 (2.8)  
Age of first homelessness   
< 25 years 3.8 (2.8) 0.413
≥ 25 years 4.0 (2.8)  
Physical health   
Blood-borne infectious disease   
No 3.6 (2.7) 0.008**
Yes 4.5 (2.9)  
Multiple (≥3) physical illness   
No 3.1 (2.7) <0.001***
Yes 4.2 (2.8)  
Overall health   
Fair/good/excellent 3.7 (2.7) 0.029*
Poor 4.6 (3.1)  
Mental disorders (past month)   
Less severe cluster   
No 3.4 (2.6) 0.001**
Yes 4.3 (2.9)  
Severe cluster   
No 4.1 (2.6) 0.314
Yes 3.8 (2.9)  
Multiple (≥2) mental disorders   
No 3.4 (2.6) <0.001***
Yes 4.4 (2.9)  
Alcohol dependence   
No 3.7 (2.7) 0.005**
Yes 4.6 (2.8)  
Substance dependence   
No 3.7 (2.7) 0.005**
Yes 4.6 (2.8)  
Suicidality   
High 3.7 (2.7) 0.038*
No/low/moderate 4.5 (2.9)  
Substance use (past month)   
Age first drunk   
Before 14 years 4.6 (2.7) <0.001***
14 years or after 3.3 (2.7)  
Age first used drugs   
Before 14 years 4.8 (2.7) <0.001***
14 years or after 3.5 (2.7)  
Frequency of substance use (including alcohol)   
Less than daily/none 3.6 (2.7) 0.006**
Daily 4.5 (2.9)  
Frequency of drug use   
Less than daily/none 3.6 (2.7) 0.001***
Daily 4.7 (2.9)  
Frequency of marijuana use   
Less than daily/none 3.8 (2.7) 0.015*
Daily 4.8 (3.0)  
Frequency of alcohol use   
Less than weekly/none 3.8 (2.8) 0.089+
Weekly or more 4.3 (2.8)  
Injection drug use   
No 3.8 (2.8) 0.148
Yes 4.3 (2.8)  
Poly-substance use   
Two or less 3.7 (2.8) 0.056+
Three or more 4.3 (2.7)  
Poly-drug use   
Two or less 3.8 (2.8) 0.122
Three or more 4.3 (2.6)  
  1. *p ≤ 0.05.
  2. + p ≤ 0.10.
  3. **p≤0.01.
  4. ***p≤0.001.
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