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Table 1 Socio-demographic, mental disorder, and substance use-related characteristics for Vancouver At Home study participants (n = 497)

From: Setting the stage for chronic health problems: cumulative childhood adversity among homeless adults with mental illness in Vancouver, British Columbia

Variable Total sample (n = 497) Participants with valid ACE total score (n = 364) Participants with missing or declined responses (n = 133) P value
N (%) N (%) N (%)
Need level (High) 297 (60) 208 (57) 89 (67) 0.049*
Gender (Male) 359 (73) 255 (71) 104 (78) 0.103
Age at enrolment visit     
Youth 36 (7) 24 (7) 12 (9) 0.344
25-44 years 281 (57) 202 (56) 76 (59)  
> 44 years 180 (36) 138 (38) 42 (32)  
Ethnicity     
Aboriginal 77 (15) 62 (14) 15 (11) 0.251
White 280 (56) 199 (55) 81 (61)  
Other 140 (28) 103 (28) 37 (28)  
Incomplete high school 280 (57) 210 (58) 70 (53) 0.270
Marital status (Single) 343 (70) 250 (69) 93 (72) 0.570
Precariously housed 109 (22) 76 (21) 33 (25) 0.544
Duration of homelessness     
Lifetime (>36 months)1 234 (48) 173 (48) 61 (46) 0.697
Longest single period (>1 yr)2 245 (50) 184 (51) 61 (47) 0.373
First homeless prior to age 25 yrs 214 (44) 152 (42) 62 (47) 0.313
Overall health (Poor) 67 (13) 53 (14) 14 (10) 0.240
Type of mental disorder     
Less severe 264 (53) 202 (56) 62 (47) 0.079+
Severe 363 (73) 258 (71) 105 (79) 0.073+
Multiple (≥2) mental disorders 240 (48) 180 (49) 60 (45) 0.392
Alcohol dependence 121 (24) 91 (25) 30 (23) 0.574
Substance dependence 288 (58) 218 (60) 70 (53) 0.126
High suicidality 87 (17) 69 (19) 18 (13) 0.159
Blood-borne infectious disease 157 (32) 118 (33) 39 (30) 0.540
Multiple (≥3) physical illness 344 (69) 253 (70) 91 (68) 0.817
Age first drunk (≤13 yrs) 164 (47) 51 (40) 215 (46) 0.153
Age of first drug use (≤13 yrs) 140 (42) 43 (35) 183 (40) 0.178
Daily substance use 143 (29) 105 (29) 38 (29) 0.952
Daily drug use 93 (25) 33 (25) 126 (25) 0.867
Injection drug use 88 (18) 64 (18) 24 (19) 0.834
Poly-substance use     
Two or more 257 (52) 193 (53) 64 (49) 0.397
Three or more 148 (30) 113 (31) 35 (27) 0.345
Poly-drug use     
Two or more 188 (38) 145 (40) 43 (33) 0.150
Three or more 108 (22) 84 (23) 24 (18) 0.253
Weekly alcohol use 111 (22) 85 (23) 26 (20) 0.394
Daily alcohol use 26 (5) 20 (5) 6 (5) 0.678
Daily marijuana use 70 (14) 49 (13) 21 (16) 0.509
  1. 1Dichotomized based on median score (3 years).
  2. 2Dichotomized based on median score (1 year).
  3. *p ≤ 0.05.
  4. +p ≤ 0.10.
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