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Table 1 Quality of articles assessed using the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE)

From: Sedentary behavior and health outcomes among older adults: a systematic review

Author Year Design Bias Imprecision Indirectness Heterogeneity Magnitude of effect Confounding adjustment Dose–response Rating
Gardiner et al. [25] 2011 Cross-sectional −1 −1 −1 −1 0 1 0 1
Lynch et al. [26] 2011 Cross-sectional −1 −1 −1 0 0 1 0 1
George et al. [27] 2011 Cross-sectional 2 −1 −1 0 0 1 0 3
Stamatakis et al. [28] 2012 Cross-sectional −1 0 −1 0 0 1 0 1
Frank et al. [29] 2010 Cross-sectional −2 −1 −1 0 0 1 0 1
Gomez-Cabello et al. [30] 2012 Cross-sectional −1 −1 −1 0 1 0 0 1
Gomez-Cabello et al. [31] 2012 Cross-sectional −1 −1 −1 0 0 0 0 1
Buman et al. [32] 2010 Cross-sectional −2 0 −1 0 0 1 0 1
Hamer et al. [33] 2012 Cross-sectional −2 0 −1 0 0 1 0 1
Hamer et al. [34] 2012 Cross-sectional −2 −1 −1 0 0 1 0 1
Bankoski et al. [35] 2011 Cross-sectional 0 −1 −1 0 0 1 0 1
Gao et al. [36] 2007 Cross-sectional 0 −1 −1 0 1 1 1 3
Inoue et al. [37] 2012 Cross-sectional −2 −1 −1 0 0 1 0 1
Dogra et al. [38] 2012 Cross-sectional −1 −1 0 0 1 1 0 2
Gennuso et al. [39] 2013 Cross-sectional 0 −1 −1 0 1 1 1 3
Geda et al. [40] 2011 Cross-sectional −1 0 −1 0 1 1 0 2
Geda et al. [41] 2012 Case–control −1 −1 −1 0 1 0 0 1
Balboa-Castillo et al. [42] 2011 Prospective Cohort −2 −1 0 0 1 1 1 2
Campbell et al. [43] 2013 Prospective Cohort −1 0 0 0 0 1 0 2
Martinez-Gomez et al. [44] 2013 Prospective Cohort −1 0 0 0 1 1 0 3
Pavey et al. [45] 2012 Prospective Cohort −1 0 0 0 1 1 1 4
León-Muñoz et al. [46] 2013 Prospective Cohort −1 0 0 0 1 1 1 4
Verghese et al. [47] 2003 Prospective Cohort −2 0 0 0 1 1 0 2