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Table 4 Differences by age a in food intakes according to gender estimated using mean polish process b

From: Descriptive epidemiological study of food intake among Japanese adults: analyses by age, time and birth cohort model

   Men Women
Age group (years)   20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59 60-69
Ricec (g/ 4,186 kJ/day) 0.0 -4.0 -3.6 -0.9 -1.6 0.0 1.2 3.5 6.3 17.6
Wheat (g/ 4,186 kJ/day) 0.0 -2.3 -2.2 -6.2 -6.4 0.0 -5.6 -9.3 -12.6 -14.8
Potatoes (g/ 4,186 kJ/day) 0.0 -1.0 -1.1 0.1 4.1 0.0 2.0 5.8 9.1 11.8
Green yellow vegetables (g/ 4,186 kJ/day) 0.0 6.5 2.0 8.1 14.3 0.0 3.8 8.6 16.1 16.3
Other vegetables (g/ 4,186 kJ/day) 0.0 2.2 3.9 13.4 23.2 0.0 8.3 10.8 15.6 14.4
Fruits (g/ 4,186 kJ/day) 0.0 -3.4 3.2 15.3 29.5 0.0 24.5 45.6 53.7 47.5
Milk, Dairy products (g/ 4,186 kJ/day) 0.0 -6.9 -0.9 -7.6 11.2 0.0 -2.6 2.0 5.4 -3.3
Meat (g/ 4,186 kJ/day) 0.0 -3.3 -9.3 -13.5 -22.2 0.0 -3.5 -11.6 -15.0 -18.3
Fish (g/ 4,186 kJ/day) 0.0 5.4 11.2 17.2 21.0 0.0 10.5 14.5 17.3 16.6
Egg (g/ 4,186 kJ/day) 0.0 -0.2 -0.8 -0.3 -0.1 0.0 -0.7 -2.7 -2.9 -0.6
Beans (g/ 4,186 kJ/day) 0.0 2.4 5.0 14.8 15.9 0.0 2.3 9.3 14.0 13.7
Confectionery (g/ 4,186 kJ/day) 0.0 -1.5 -0.5 -2.3 0.7 0.0 1.3 1.6 1.7 1.7
Sugar (g/ 4,186 kJ/day) 0.0 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.0 0.7 1.1 1.2 1.6
Fats and Oils (g/ 4,186 kJ/day) 0.0 -0.4 -1.4 -1.9 -3.5 0.0 -0.3 -1.1 -2.5 -3.3
  1. Difference by age in food intakes according to gender are shown using National Health and Nutrition Survey in Japan, 1989, 1999 and 2009.
  2. aMinus symbol "-" means negative values. Positive values indicate greater consumption in the particular age group compared to theoretical values for the 20-29-year age group in any generation or at any time point.
  3. bA statistical model symbolically represented by: Rij = ai + tj + c(k) [23] where Rij (food intake) is modeled by the sum of the effects of the ith age group (i = 1 to 5, representing age groups from 20-29 to 60-69) represented by ai, the effects of the jth time period (1989 or 1999 or 2009 survey) represented by tj, and the effects of the kth cohort (birth at 1930-1939, 1940-1949, 1950-1959, 1960-1969, 1970-1979) represented by c(k). A c(k) value greater than zero indicates higher than additive influence and less than zero indicates lower than additive influence from age/time effects on food intake.
  4. cRice intake presented for 2009 was calculated as the half of that reported in 2009 NHNS-J.
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