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Table 2 Differences in food intakes by gender and birth cohorts a as estimated using the mean polish process b

From: Descriptive epidemiological study of food intake among Japanese adults: analyses by age, time and birth cohort model

   Men Women
  Year of birth 1930-39 1940-49 1950-59 1960-69 1970-79 1930-39 1940-49 1950-59 1960-69 1970-79
Ricec (g/ 4,186 kJ/day) 3.1 -3.6 -3.4 1.2 2.2 0.7 1.6 -1.4 -1.6 -0.2
Wheat (g/ 4,186 kJ/day) 0.3 1.2 -0.2 0.0 -2.1 -0.6 -1.7 -0.4 0.1 2.6
Potatoes (g/ 4,186 kJ/day) 1.0 0.1 -0.1 -0.5 1.4 1.5 0.0 -2.0 -0.7 0.5
Green yellow vegetables (g/ 4,186 kJ/day) -0.1 0.8 0.9 0.1 -0.7 -3.4 1.5 3.8 1.3 -2.5
Other vegetables (g/ 4,186 kJ/day) -1.3 -1.9 -0.2 -1.9 4.2 -2.7 -0.6 4.5 0.8 -5.4
Fruits (g/ 4,186 kJ/day) 3.0 3.2 1.4 -2.3 -2.7 -5.2 5.4 7.6 -4.5 -5.3
Milk, Dairy products (g/ 4,186 kJ/day) -4.7 3.6 -4.1 -7.6 5.3 3.4 3.2 0.1 -2.8 -0.8
Meat (g/ 4,186 kJ/day) 0.3 -1.9 0.3 1.2 0.8 0.5 -2.1 -1.4 -0.1 1.8
Fish (g/ 4,186 kJ/day) -3.3 4.2 0.0 -2.3 1.3 -1.8 -0.1 5.7 -0.4 -4.7
Egg (g/ 4,186 kJ/day) -1.0 -1.2 1.8 -0.5 -0.8 -0.4 -1.0 -0.3 1.0 0.1
Beans (g/ 4,186 kJ/day) 3.4 -1.3 -1.7 -1.1 1.2 1.5 0.3 -0.9 -0.1 -0.1
Confectionery (g/ 4,186 kJ/day) -0.8 0.2 -0.2 -0.3 -0.5 1.8 -0.8 -1.2 -0.7 1.5
Sugar (g/ 4,186 kJ/day) 0.2 0.3 0.3 -0.1 -0.3 -0.3 0.2 0.1 -0.4 0.0
Fats and Oils (g/ 4,186 kJ/day) -0.1 0.0 0.5 0.4 -0.6 -0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 -0.2
  1. Difference by birth cohort in food intakes are shown according to gender using the National Health and Nutrition Survey in Japan, 1989, 1999 and 2009.
  2. aMinus symbol "-" means negative values. Positive values indicate more consumption in the particular birth cohort theoretically in any age group or at any time.
  3. bA statistical model symbolically represented by: Rij = ai + tj + c(k) [23] where Rij (food intake) is modeled by the sum of the effects of the ith age group (i = 1 to 5, representing age groups from 20-29 to 60-69) represented by ai, the effects of the jth time period (1989 or 1999 or 2009 survey) represented by tj, and the effects of the kth cohort (birth at 1930-1939, 1940-1949, 1950-1959, 1960-1969, 1970-1979) represented by c(k). A c(k) value greater than zero indicates higher than additive influence and less than zero indicates lower than additive influence from age/time effects on food intake.
  4. cRice intake presented for 2009 was calculated as the half of that reported in 2009 NHNS-J.
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