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Table 6 Defensive responses and potential unintended effects (n = 354)

From: Messages that increase women’s intentions to abstain from alcohol during pregnancy: results from quantitative testing of advertising concepts

  Control Self-efficacy only Threat only Threat and self-efficacy
  n = 58 n = 132 n = 83 n = 81
Defensive responses Yes % Yes % Yes % Yes %
I don’t want to think about what the advertisement is saying 8.6^~ 3.0 3.6 8.6^~
The information in this advertisement is false 5.2~ 3.0 1.2 1.2
The advertisement exaggerates the issue 12.1 7.6 13.3 9.9
The advertisement is misleading 6.9 6.1 4.8 3.7
Potential unintended effects     
Talk to a health professional about options for terminating the pregnancy 6.7 6.0 3.6 7.4
Drink the same amount of alcohol as usual for the rest of the pregnancy 1.7 0.0 1.2 0.0
  1. Affirmative answer percentage significantly different from Control at p  0.05.
  2. ^Affirmative answer percentage significantly different from Self-efficacy only at p  0.05.
  3. ~Affirmative answer percentage significantly different from Threat only at p  0.05.