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Table 5 Emotional arousal (n = 354)

From: Messages that increase women’s intentions to abstain from alcohol during pregnancy: results from quantitative testing of advertising concepts

  Control Self-efficacy only Threat only Threat and self-efficacy
  n = 58 n = 132 n = 83 n = 81
Emotion Yes % Yes % Yes % Yes %
Worried 17.2 12.9 27.7#^ 23.5^
Anxious 10.3 9.8 20.5#^ 17.3^
Guilty 29.3^~* 4.5 15.7^ 13.6^
Regretful 17.2^~* 3.8 6.0 7.4
Ashamed 12.1^* 1.5 8.4^ 6.2^
Surprised 13.8 26.5# 20.5 28.4#
Relieved 12.1 39.4~ 26.5# 42.0~
Proud of myself 41.4 53.8# 56.6# 53.1#
Happy 48.3 77.3#~* 37.3 63.0~
  1. #Affirmative answer percentage significantly different from Control at p  0.05.
  2. ^Affirmative answer percentage significantly different from Self-efficacy only at p  0.05.
  3. ~Affirmative answer percentage significantly different from Threat only at p  0.05.
  4. *Affirmative answer percentage significantly different from Threat and self-efficacy at p  0.05.
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