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Table 2 Exposure risks with significant associations comparing HCV antibody positive and negative men who have sex with men from Zurich, stratified by HIV diagnosis

From: Prevalence of hepatitis C in a Swiss sample of men who have sex with men: whom to screen for HCV infection?

Factor (exposure risk) HCV pos.1 HCV neg. Fisher’s2 OR3 95% CI4of OR
(Without substitution of missing values) n % n %
HIV 5 diagnosis         
Total sample (n = 840) Yes 4 21.1 15 78.9 0.000 72.70 14.95-353.56
No 3 0.4 818 99.6
Non-Swiss origin         
Total sample (valid n = 769) Yes 5 2.8 173 97.2 0.009 8.51 1.64-18.75
No 2 0.3 589 99.7
No known HIV infection (valid n = 752) Yes 1 0.6 171 99.4 0.542 1.69 0.15-18.75
No 2 0.3 578 99.7
HIV diagnosed (valid n = 17) Yes 4 66.7 2 33.3 0.006 n.a. 7  
No 0 0.0 11 100.0
Tattooed         
Total sample (valid n = 727) Yes 5 3.4 140 96.6 0.004 10.36 1.99-53.94
No 2 0.3 580 99.7
No known HIV infection (valid n = 710) Yes 2 1.4 137 98.6 0.100 8.32 0.75-92.43
No 1 0.2 570 99.8
HIV diagnosed (valid n = 17) Yes 3 50.0 3 50.0 0.099 10.00 0.74-135.33
No 1 9.1 10 90.9
NIDU 6 of cocaine or amphetamines NIDU only         
Total sample (valid n = 727) Yes 4 4.0 95 96.5 0.012 8.77 1.93-39.81
No 3 0.5 625 99.5
No known HIV infection (valid n = 710) Yes 0 0.0 91 100.0 0.621 n.a.  
No 3 0.5 616 99.5
HIV diagnosed (valid n = 17) Yes 4 50.0 4 50.0 0.053 n.a.  
No 0 0.0 9 100.0
  1. 1HCV pos./neg.: positive/negative for antibodies against hepatitis C virus; 2Fisher’s exact test; 3OR: odds ratio; 4CI: confidence interval; 5HIV: human immunodeficiency virus; 6NIDU: non-injection drug use; 7 n.a.: not applicable (division by zero).