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Table 1 Hepatitis C prevalence, socio-demographic, behavioural, and sexual health related sample characteristics, stratified by HIV diagnosis, in a sample of men who have sex with men from Zurich

From: Prevalence of hepatitis C in a Swiss sample of men who have sex with men: whom to screen for HCV infection?

Characteristic Total No known HIV infection HIV diagnosed
n = 840 n = 821 n = 19
Hepatitis C prevalence % (95%-CI) n % (95%-CI) n % (95%-CI) n
 Antibody* 0.8 (0.4-1.7) 7 0.4 (0.12-1.1) 3 21.1 (8.5-43.3) 4
 Antigen* 0.2 (0.1-0.9) 2 0.1 (0.02-0.7) 1 5.3 (0.9-24.6) 1
Age Years Years Years
 Range 17-79 17-79 19-59
 25%-, 50%-, 75%-quartiles 26, 33, 41 26, 33, 41 33, 38, 47
Country of origin % (95%-CI 1 ) n % (95%-CI) n % (95%-CI) n
 By nationality          
 Swiss 70.4 (67.2-73.3) 591 70.6 (67.4-73.6) 580 57.9 (36.3-76.9) 11
 Non-Swiss 21.2 (18.6-24.1) 178 21.0 (18.3-23.9) 172 31.6 (15.4-54.0) 6
 Unknown 8.5 (6.8-10.5) 71 8.4 (6.7-10.5) 69 10.5 (2.9-31.4) 2
 By national HCV prevalence2    
 < 1.5% 3.5 (2.4-4.9) 29 3.3 (2.3-4.7) 27 10.5 (2.9-31.4) 2
 1.5-3.5% (incl. Switzerland) 87.0 (84.6-89.1) 731 87.3 (84.9-89.4) 717 73.7 (51.2-88.2) 14
 > 3.5% 1.1 (0.6-2.0) 9 1.0 (0.5-1.9) 8 5.3 (0.9-24.6) 1
 Unknown 8.5 (6.8-10.5) 71 8.4 (6.7-10.5) 69 10.5 (2.9-31.4) 2
Blood exposures Valid% (95%-CI) n Valid% (95%-CI) n Valid% (95%-CI) n
Blood transfusion before 1985 1.3 (0.7-2.4) 11 1.4 (0.8-2.4) 11 0.0 (0.0-16.8) 0
Piercing 24.7 (21.8-27.8) 198 24.5 (21.6-27.7) 192 31.6 (15.4-54.0) 6
 Performed abroad 6.1 (4.6-7.9) 51 6.0 (4.5-7.8) 49 10.5 (2.9-31.4) 2
Genital piercing 2.8 (1.8-4.2) 22 2.7 (1.8-4.1) 21 6.2 (1.1-28.3) 1
Tattoo 19.9 (17.2-23.0) 145 19.6 (16.8-22.7) 139 35.3 (17.3-58.7) 6
 Performed abroad 7.9 (6.2-9.9) 66 7.7 (6.0-9.7) 63 15.8 (5.5-37.6) 3
Current drug use Valid% (95%-CI) n Valid% (95%-CI) n Valid% (95%-CI) n
 IDU3 3.3 (2.2-5.0) 22 3.1 (2.0-4.7) 20 13.3 (3.7-37.9) 2
 NIDU of cocaine / amph.4* 13.6 (11.3-16.3) 99 12.8 (10.6-15.5) 91 47.0 (26.2-69.0) 8
 Ecstasy* 12.2 (10.0-14.8) 87 11.8 (9.6-14.4) 82 31.3 (14.2-55.6) 5
 Cannabis* 20.4 (17.6-23.4) 151 19.8 (17.1-22.9) 144 46.7 (24.8-69.9) 7
 Any of the above* 50.0 (46.6-53.4) 412 48.9 (45.5-52.4) 394 94.7 (75.4-99.1) 18
(Continued) Total No known HIV infection HIV diagnosed
n= 840 n= 821 n = 19
Sexual partners last year Number Number Number
 Range 0-500 0-500 0-200
 25%-, 50%-, 75%-quartiles 4, 6, 15 4, 6, 12 10, 20, 50
  Valid% (95%-CI) n Valid% (95%-CI) n Valid% (95%-CI) n
 More than 10 sexual partners* 30.1 (27.1-33.3) 250 29.2 (26.2-32.4) 237 68.4 (46.0-84.6) 13
UAI 5 partners last year Number Number Number
 Range 0-200 0-60 0-200
 25%-, 50%-, 75%-quartiles 0, 1, 1 0, 1, 1 0, 1, 6
  Valid% (95%-CI) n Valid% (95%-CI) n Valid% (95%-CI) n
More than 10 UAI partners* 1.1 (0.6-2.0) 9 0.6 (0.3-1.4) 5 21.1 (8.5-43.3) 4
UAI episodes last year Valid% (95%-CI) n Valid% (95%-CI) n Valid% (95%-CI) n
 With steady partner* 48.5 (45.1-52.0) 384 49.1 (45.6-52.6) 380 23.5 (9.6-47.2) 4
 With known casual partners 25.1 (22.2-28.2) 201 24.9 (22.0-28.1) 195 33.3 (16.3-56.3) 6
 With anonymous partners* 11.8 (9.7-14.3) 92 11.3 (9.3-13.8) 86 31.6 (15.4-54.0) 6
“Hard” sexual practices* 6          
 Any that might lead to bleeding 12.1 (10.1-14.5) 102 11.7 (9.7-14.1) 96 31.6 (15.4-54.0) 6
 Fisting, receptive* 4.0 (2.9-5.6) 34 3.8 (2.7-5.3) 31 15.8 (5.5-37.6) 3
 Dildo usage, receptive 6.9 (5.4-8.8) 58 6.7 (5.2-8.6) 55 15.8 (5.5-37.6) 3
 Anal dilatation, receptive 2.3 (1.5-3.5) 19 2.1 (1.3-3.3) 17 10.5 (2.9-31.4) 2
 Enema, receptive 1.2 (0.6-2.2) 10 1.1 (0.6-2.1) 9 5.3 (0.9-24.7) 1
 Catheterisation, receptive 1.2 (0.6-2.2) 10 1.2 (0.6-2.2) 10 0.0 (0.0-16.8) 0
 With steady partner 6.9 (5.3-8.8) 57 6.7 (5.2-8.6) 54 15.8 (5.5-37.6) 3
 With known casual partners 11.3 (9.3-13.6) 94 10.9 (8.9-13.2) 89 26.3 (11.8-48.8) 5
 With anonymous partners* 5.9 (4.5-7.7) 49 5.5 (4.2-7.3) 45 21.1 (8.5-43.3) 4
 At home 12.6 (10.6-15.1) 105 12.3 (10.2-14.7) 100 26.4 (11.9-48.9) 5
 At private sex parties* 4.6 (3.4-6.3) 38 4.2 (3.0-5.8) 34 21.1 (8.5-43.4) 4
 In sex clubs* 6.9 (5.4-8.8) 57 6.3 (4.8-8.2) 51 31.6 (15.4-54.0) 6
 In cruising areas* 3.4 (2.4-4.9) 28 3.1 (2.1-4.5) 25 15.8 (5.5-37.6) 3
Group sex7* 5.4 (4.0-7.1) 45 4.9 (3.6-6.6) 40 26.3 (11.8-48.8) 5
Lifetime history of STIs 8 Valid% (95%-CI) n Valid% (95%-CI) n Valid% (95%-CI) n
Urethral gonorrhea* 20.2 (17.6-23.1) 168 19.6 (17.0-22.5) 159 47.4 (27.4-68.3) 9
Rectal gonorrhea 1.7 (1.0-2.8) 14 1.6 (0.9-2.7) 13 5.3 (0.9-24.7) 1
Pharyngeal gonorrhea 1.5 (0.9-2.6) 13 1.6 (0.9-2.7) 13 0.0 (0.0-16.8) 0
Chlamydial infection* 10.9 (9.0-13.2) 91 10.5 (8.6-12.8) 85 31.6 (15.4-54.0) 6
Syphilis* 8.1 (6.4-10.1) 68 7.1 (5.5-9.1) 58 52.6 (31.7-72.6) 10
Hepatitis A 2.2 (1.4-3.4) 18 2.0 (1.2-3.2) 16 10.5 (2.9-31.4) 2
Hepatitis B* 2.3 (1.5-3.5) 19 1.8 (1.1-3.0) 15 21.1 (8.5-43.4) 4
Genital herpes 2.5 (1.6-3.8) 21 2.4 (1.6-3.7) 20 5.3 (0.9-24.7) 1
Genital or anal warts* 7.8 (6.2-9.8) 65 7.2 (5.6-9.2) 59 31.6 (15.4-54.0) 6
Lesion-prone STIs9 * 18.2 (15.8-21.0) 153 17.2 (14.7-19.9) 141 63.2 (41.1-80.9) 12
  1. *Fisher’s exact test <0.05; 1CI: confidence interval; 2National HCV prevalence according to Modh Hanafiah et al. 2012 [36]; 3IDU: injection drug use; 4NIDU of cocaine/amph.: non-injection drug use of cocaine or amphetamines; 5UAI: unprotected anal intercourse; 6“Hard” sexual practices that may lead to bleeding; 7group sex: defined as reporting 10 or more sexual partners in the past 12 months and engaging in “hard” practices (see above) in sex clubs or at private sex parties; 8STIs: sexually transmitted infections; 9Lesion-prone STIs: syphilis, rectal gonorrhoea, or chlamydial infection.