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Table 2 Overdose rescues reported by substance using bystanders in Massachusetts, 2006-2010

From: Overdose rescues by trained and untrained participants and change in opioid use among substance-using participants in overdose education and naloxone distribution programs: a retrospective cohort study

  Rescues after training Rescues before training p-value*
N = 508 N = 91
Relationship to overdose victim    0.92
 Friend 67% (341/508) 69% (63/91)
 Partner/family 12% (62/508) 13% (12/91)
 Stranger 9.1% (46/508) 8.8% (8/91)
 Client/patient ** **
 Self 10% (53/508) 8.8% (8/91)
 Declined ** **
Overdose setting    0.13
 Private 79% (395/498) 70% (62/89)
 Public 20% (100/498) 29% (26/89)
 Declined ** **
Number of doses used    0.06
 1 52% (244/468) 61% (52/85)
 2 43% (201/468) 39% (33/85)
 3+ 4.9% (23/468) 0.0% (0/85)
Naloxone successful 97% (295/303) 96% (54/56) 0.70
911 called or emergency personnel present 23% (119/508) 27% (25/91) 0.41
Rescue breathing performed 47% (166/350) 52% (34/66) 0.54
Stayed with victim until alert or help arrived 89% (445/498) 89% (78/88) 0.84
Sternal rub 63% (222/350) 62% (41/66) 0.84
Slap 38% (134/350) 35% (23/66) 0.60
Ice or water 9.4% (33/350) 14% (9/66) 0.30
Salt or cocaine shot 0.0% (0/350) 0.0% (0/66) --
  1. Denominators less than the total number for each group are due to missing information.
  2. *Categorical variables are compared using a chi square test.
  3. **Cells with values less than 5 suppressed.