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Table 1 Characteristics of overdose education and naloxone distribution program participants who reported any substance use, Massachusetts, 2006-2010

From: Overdose rescues by trained and untrained participants and change in opioid use among substance-using participants in overdose education and naloxone distribution programs: a retrospective cohort study

  No rescue reported Trained rescuers Untrained rescuers
N = 4553 N = 295 N = 78
Age mean (std dev) 34.1 (10.8) 35.1 (10.6) 35.0 (10.3)
Female and MtF 35% (1579/4479) 34% (99/289) 42% (33/78)
Race/Ethnicity    
 Hispanic 14% (643/4511) 11% (31/293) 17% (13/78)
 White, Non-Hispanic 77% (3463/4511) 80% (235/293) 81% (63/78)
 Black/African American, Non-Hispanic 5.5% (249/4511) 6.1% (18/293) **
 Other, Non-Hispanic 3.5% (156/4511) 3.1% (9/293) **
Enrollment location type    
 Inpatient detoxification 42% (1554/3730) 24% (35/144) 21% (13/61)
 Needle exchange 17% (635/3730) 31% (45/144) 41% (25/61)
 Drop-in center 13% (503/3730) 26% (37/144) 33% (20/61)
 Other 28% (1038/3730) 19% (27/144) **
Opioid use, previous 30 days    
 Heroin only 48% (2199/4553) 60% (181/295) 72% (56/78)
 Any other opioid 30% (1372/4553) 27% (81/295) 22% (15/78)
 No opioid use 22% (982/4553) 13% (38/295) **
Polysubstance use, previous 30 days 77% (3515/4553) 80% (235/295) 79% (62/78)
Attended detoxification, past year 63% (2769/4397) 53% (146/278) 55% (41/75)
Released from incarceration, past year 26% (1140/4389) 29% (80/275) 16% (12/75)
Any homelessness, past year 37% (1592/4291) 38% (102/272) 38% (28/74)
Ever had a nonfatal overdose 51% (2248/4425) 63% (178/281) 68% (51/75)
Ever witnessed an overdose 76% (3378/4464) 86% (249/288) 94% (72/77)
Reported >1 overdose rescue -- 34% (101/295) 24% (19/78)
 mean (std dev) 2.9 (1.6) 2.6 (1.3)
  1. Denominators less than the total number for each group are due to missing information.
  2. **Cells with values less than 5 suppressed.