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Table 1 Factors associated with having an HIV test within 12 months of the survey date among YMSM in New Zealand 2006, 2008, 2011 based on univariate analyses

From: Factors associated with recent HIV testing among younger gay and bisexual men in New Zealand, 2006-2011

  n Recent test % Univariate OR (95% CI) p
Demographics     
Age (16-29 years old)     
 OR for each per year increase in age - - 1.06 (1.03-1.08) ***
Recruitment site     
 Fair day 896 46.8 1.00 (ref.)  
 Gay bars 120 49.2 1.15 (0.78 – 1.68)  
 Sex-on-site venues 76 54.0 1.40 (0.88 – 2.25)  
 Internet dating sites 2260 36.2 0.65 (0.56 -0.76) ***
Identity     
 Gay 2345 44.3 1.00 (ref.)  
 Bisexual 804 28.9 0.51 (0.43 – 0.60) ***
 Other 192 33.9 0.66 (0.48 – 0.90) **
Ethnicity     
 European/Pākehāa 2277 40.7 1.00 (ref.)  
 Māori 398 39.2 0.92 (0.74 – 1.15)  
 Pacific 144 30.6 0.63 (0.44 – 0.91) *
 Asian 307 38.4 0.87 (0.68 – 1.12)  
 Other 197 44.7 1.13 (0.84 – 1.52)  
Education     
 Less than tertiary 2180 37.3 1.00 (ref.)  
 At least some tertiary 1140 45.0 1.37 (1.19 – 1.59) ***
Time spent with other gay men     
 Little or none 1443 31.3 1.00 (ref.)  
 Some or a lot 1858 46.7 1.97 (1.70 – 2.28) ***
Sexual behavior in last six months     
Sex with woman     
 Yes 592 31.9 0.66 (0.55 – 0.80) ***
 No 2743 41.6 1.00 (ref.)  
Sex with a man     
 Yes 3015 42.7 4.20 (3.08 – 5.71) ***
 No 333 15.3 1.00 (ref.)  
Number of male sex partners     
 0 319 15.1 0.36 (0.25 – 0.50) ***
 1 670 32.7 1.00 (ref.)  
 2-5 1362 41.4 1.46 (1.20 – 1.78) ***
 6-10 443 45.8 1.75 (1.36 – 2.24) ***
 11-20 260 60.4 3.23 (2.40 – 4.35) ***
 >20 241 51.5 2.24 (1.66 – 3.03) ***
Number of regular partners     
 0 618 36.3 0.78 (0.64 – 0.96) *
 1 1288 41.9 1.00 (Ref.)  
 2 557 47.4 1.25 (1.02 – 1.53) *
 3-4 327 47.7 1.26 (0.99 – 1.61)  
 5+ 189 46.0 1.17 (0.93 – 1.59)  
Regular partner, current status     
 Yes, have a current regular partner 1402 47.7 1.75 (1.52 – 2.02) ***
 No, do not have a current regular partner 1888 34.4 1.00 (ref.)  
Current regular partner, type     
 Boyfriend-type partner 801 48.4 1.00 (ref.)  
 Fuckbuddy-type partner 568 46.5 0.91 (0.74 – 1.13)  
Current regular partner, relationship length     
 <6 months 558 48.8 1.00 (ref.)  
 6 months – 1 year 256 57.4 1.43 (1.06 – 1.93) *
 >1 – 2 years 300 46.3 0.90 (0.68 – 1.20)  
 3 or more years 266 38.0 0.65 (0.48 – 0.87) **
Current regular partner, anal modality     
 Receptive only 276 47.5 0.79 (0.60 – 1.04)  
 Insertive only 223 43.1 0.67 (0.50 – 0.91) *
 Both insertive and receptive 745 52.4 1.00 (ref.)  
Current regular partner, condom use     
 Have a current regular partner, but no anal intercourse 142 34.5 0.59 (0.40 – 0.87) *
 Lowb condom use 502 47.4 1.00 (ref.)  
 Mediumc condom use 155 57.4 1.49 (1.04 – 2.15) *
 Highd condom use 573 49.4 1.07 (0.84 – 1.36)  
Casual partner, any sex     
 Yes 2342 44.7 1.96 (1.67 – 2.32) ***
 No 917 28.9 1.00 (ref.)  
Casual partner, anal modality     
 Receptive only 404 43.6 0.76 (0.60 – 0.96) *
 Insertive only 426 42.4 0.73 (0.58 – 0.91) **
 Both insertive and receptive 1040 50.4 1.00 (ref.)  
 Casual partner, condom use     
 Casual partners, but no anal intercourse 454 33.9 0.95 (0.68 – 1.33)  
 Lowb condom use 227 35.2 1.00 (ref.)  
 Mediumc condom use 269 42.8 1.34 (0.93 – 1.94)  
 Highd condom use 1386 50.1 1.82 (1.36 – 2.44) ***
Knowledge and attitudes     
“HIV cannot pass through anundamaged latex condom”     
 Knew that 2442 42.1 1.44 (1.23 – 1.69) ***
 Wasn’t sure/didn’t know 894 33.9 1.00 (ref.)  
“HIV/AIDS is a less serious threat than it used to be because of new treatments”     
 Agree 673 36.4 1.00 (ref.)  
 Disagree 2659 40.8 1.26 (1.05 – 1.50) *
“A man who knows he has HIV would tell me he was positive before we had sex”     
 Agree 1500 35.5 1.00 (ref.)  
 Disagree 1819 43.8 1.43 (1.25 – 1.65) ***
“I would sometimes rather risk HIV transmission than use a condom during anal sex”     
 Agree 445 39.6 1.00 (ref.)  
 Disagree 2869 40.2 1.04 (0.85 – 1.27)  
“Condoms are OK as part of sex”     
 Agree 3159 40.4 1.00 (ref.)  
 Disagree 173 32.4 0.72 (0.52 – 1.00)  
“I don’t like wearing condoms because they reduce sensitivity”     
 Agree 1219 40.0 1.00 (ref.)  
 Disagree 2086 40.0 1.01 (0.87 – 1.16)  
  1. OR adjusted odds ratio with 95%, CI confidence interval, ref. reference group. Table omits missing data. Bolded text indicates statistical significance at p<0.05. Rows indicating “no current regular partner” or “no casual partners” are excluded from those variables where additional information is provided (e.g. regular partner type, relationship length, anal modality, condom use).
  2. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001.
  3. aPākehā = indigenous Māori term for European settlers/ethnicity; b“low” condom use refers to very rarely or never using condoms; c“medium” condom use refers to using condoms about half the time; d“high” condom use refers to always or almost always using condoms.