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Table 2 Frequency measures for covariates by study site

From: Early maternal age at first birth is associated with chronic diseases and poor physical performance in older age: cross-sectional analysis from the International Mobility in Aging Study

  Kingston St Hyacinthe Tirana Manizales Natal
(n = 212) (n = 210) (n = 206) (n = 202) (n = 210)
Socio-demographic characteristics
Age, mean (SD), yr 69.1 (2.6) 68.6 (2.6) 69.2 (3.1) 69.3 (3.0) 69.3 (2.7)
≤8 yr education, n (%) 4 (2.6%) 45 (21.4%) 97 (47.1%) 172 (85.2%) 190 (90.5%)
Childhood economic adversity, mean (SD)1 1.0 (0.8) 1.3 (0.7) 1.6 (1.0) 1.5 (0.8) 2.0 (0.9)
Chronic Conditions 2
Diabetes, n (%) 23 (10.9%) 34 (16.3%) 60 (29.4%) 33 (16.3%) 66 (31.4%)
Stroke, n (%) 11 (5.2%) 11 (5.2%) 7 (3.4%) 12 (5.9%) 17 (8.1%)
Arthritis, n (%) 129 (60.9%) 116 (55.2%) 135 (65.5%) 79 (39.1%) 106 (50.5%)
Cancer, n (%) 36 (17.0%) 31 (14.8%) 5 (2.4%) 7 (3.5%) 8 (3.8%)
Chronic lung disease, n (%) 30 (14.2%) 26 (12.4%) 31 (15.1%) 34 (16.8%) 18 (8.6%)
Coronary heart disease, n (%) 34 (16.0%) 35 (16. 7%) 59 (28.6%) 33 (16.3%) 36 (17.1%)
Osteoporosis, n (%) 50 (24.1%) 52 (24.8%) 83 (40.3%) 45 (22.3%) 102 (48.6%)
High blood pressure, n (%) 89 (42.0%) 98 (46.7%) 152 (73.8%) 124 (61.4%) 155 (73.8%)
Outcome 3
SPPB, mean (SD) 10.2 (2.0) 10.0 (1.7) 8.4 (3.0) 9.4 (1.9) 8.4 (2.4)
SPPB ≤ 8, n (%)4 31 (14.6%) 32 (15.2%) 83 (40.3%) 50 (25.9%) 93 (44.3%)
  1. 1Childhood economic adversity scores can vary from 0 to 3. A point was given for each of the following self-reported childhood circumstances: poverty, hunger, and parental unemployment.
  2. 2Chronic diseases are self-reported measures.
  3. 3SPPB is the Short Physical Performance Battery; scores can vary from 0–12. Scores of 8 or below signify poor physical functioning.
  4. 4Missing 9 values for Manizales.