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Table 4 Hierarchical multivariate-adjusted associations of very short, short, and long sleep with overweight/obesity

From: Associations between inadequate sleep and obesity in the US adult population: analysis of the national health interview survey (1977–2009)

Characteristics Model 1a Model 2b Model 3c
  Overweight Obesity Overweight Obesity Overweight Obesity
Sleep measures OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Reference (7–8 hours) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Very short sleep 1.26 (1.14, 1.38)* 2.05 (1.85, 2.26)* 1.29 (1.16, 1.43)* 1.93 (1.73, 2.16)* 1.30 (1.16, 1.47)* 1.95 (1.73, 2.20)*
Short sleep 1.17 (1.14, 1.20)* 1.51 (1.46, 1.56)* 1.19 (1.15, 1.23)* 1.52 (1.46, 1.58)* 1.20 (1.15, 1.24)* 1.53 (1.47, 1.60)*
Long sleep 1.03 (0.98, 1.08) 1.30 (1.23, 1.37)* 1.03 (0.97, 1.09)* 1.23 (1.15, 1.31)* 1.04 (0.98, 1.11) 1.24 (1.16, 1.33)*
Characteristics Model 4 d Model 5 e Model 6 f
  Overweight Obesity Overweight Obesity Overweight Obesity
Sleep measures OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Reference (7–8 hours) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Very short sleep 1.25 (1.11, 1.41)* 1.72 (1.53, 1.95)* 1.34 (1.18, 1.53)* 1.91 (1.68, 2.18)* 1.36 (1.19, 1.55)* 1.99 (1.75, 2.27)*
Short sleep 1.18 (1.14, 1.23)* 1.48 (1.42, 1.55)* 1.17 (1.12, 1.22)* 1.51 (1.44, 1.58)* 1.18 (1.13, 1.23)* 1.51 (1.45, 1.58)*
Long sleep 1.02 (0.95, 1.09) 1.16 (1.08, 1.25) 1.02 (0.95, 1.10) 1.20 (1.11, 1.29)* 1.03 (0.95, 1.11) 1.24 (1.15, 1.34)*
Characteristics Model 7 g Model 8 h   
  Overweight Obesity Overweight Obesity   
Sleep measures OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)   
Reference (7–8 hours) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00   
Very short sleep 1.30 (1.15, 1.46)* 1.94 (1.72, 2.19)* 1.23 (1.08, 1.40)* 1.59 (1.40, 1.81)*   
Short sleep 1.20 (1.15, 1.24)* 1.53 (1.47, 1.60)* 1.14 (1.09, 1.19)* 1.42 (1.36, 1.49)*   
Long sleep 1.04 (0.98, 1.11) 1.24 (1.15 1.33)* 0.99 (0.92, 1.07) 1.12 (1.03, 1.21)   
  1. Abbreviations: CI confidence interval, OR odds ratio; *P < 0.05.
  2. a Model 1: age-sex-adjusted independent associations of inadequate sleep (short and long) with obesity.
  3. b Model 2: Model 1 plus demographic factors.
  4. c Model 3: Model 2 plus smoking and alcohol consumption.
  5. d Model 4: Model 3 plus hypertension.
  6. e Model 5: Model 3 plus diabetes.
  7. f Model 6: Model 3 plus and coronary heart disease/myocardial infarction.
  8. g Model 7: Model 3 plus stroke.
  9. h Model 8: Parsimonious Model (covariates adjusted in the model included: age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, total family income, smoking status, history of diabetes, and history of hypertension).