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Table 2 Age-sex-adjusted associations of demographics, health risks, and medical conditions with overweight/obesity and inadequate sleep (1977 – 2009)

From: Associations between inadequate sleep and obesity in the US adult population: analysis of the national health interview survey (1977–2009)

Characteristics Overweight Obesity Very short sleep Short sleep Long sleep
  OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Demographics      
Race/ethnicity ( reference: Whites )      
  Blacks 1.42 (1.36, 1.47)* 1.98 (1.90, 2.06)* 2.24 (2.04, 2.45)* 1.54 (1.49, 1.60)* 1.62 (1.54, 1.71)*
  Others 0.73 (0.69, 0.77)* 0.55 (0.51, 0.60)* 1.05 (0.88, 1.25)* 1.15 (1.09, 1.22)* 0.95 (0.87, 1.05)
Education ( reference: High School or higher ) 1.10 (1.06, 1.14)* 1.24 (1.19, 1.29)* 1.93 (1.77, 2.11)* 1.04 (1.00, 1.08)* 2.01 (1.92, 2.10)*
Marital status ( reference: married )      
  Widowed 0.92 (0.87, 0.98)* 0.98 (0.91, 1.05) 2.17 (1.87, 2.52)* 1.38 (1.30, 1.47)* 1.58 (1.45, 1.73)*
  Divorced 0.96 (0.92, 1.00) 1.12 (1.07, 1.16)* 2.67 (2.41, 2.95)* 1.55 (1.50, 1.61)* 1.16 (1.09, 1.23)
  Separated 1.10 (1.02, 1.18)* 1.39 (1.28, 1.50)* 3.53 (3.03, 4.11)* 1.59 (1.48, 1.70)* 1.50 (1.35, 1.66)*
  Single 0.81 (0.78, 0.84)* 0.99 (0.95, 1.03) 1.47 (1.32, 1.64)* 1.03 (0.99, 1.06)* 1.59 (1.51, 1.67)*
Total family income (reference: ≥ $35,000) 0.89 (0.87, 0.92)* 0.95 (0.92, 0.98)* 2.09 (1.92, 2.27)* 1.04 (1.02, 1.07)* 1.84 (1.75, 1.92)*
Poverty status ( reference: above poverty ) 1.05 (1.00, 1.10)* 1.39 (1.32, 1.45)* 2.86 (2.59, 3.17)* 1.19 (1.14, 1.24)* 2.04 (1.93, 2.16)*
Smoking status ( reference: never smokers ) 0.99 (0.99, 0.99)* 0.99 (0.99, 0.99)* 1.06 (1.05, 1.06)* 1.02 (1.02, 1.03)* 1.04 (1.03 1.04)*
Alcohol consumption ( reference: never )      
  Former 1.09 (1.03, 1.15)* 1.35 (1.27, 1.43)* 1.92 (1.67, 2.21)* 1.53 (1.45, 1.61)* 1.35 (1.25, 1.47)*
  Current 0.95 (0.92, 0.99)* 0.86 (0.82, 0.90)* 0.98 (0.88, 1.10)* 1.28 (1.23, 1.33)* 0.82 (0.77, 0.87)*
Physical activity (reference: yes) a 1.05 (0.99, 1.10) 1.32 (1.24, 1.40)* 1.08 (0.99, 1.17) 1.08 (1.03, 1.18) 1.47 (1.32, 1.63)*
Emotional distress (reference: yes) a 1.07 (0.96, 1.18) 1.88 (1.71, 1.35)* 5.51 (5.02, 6.05)* 5.51 (5.02, 6.05)* 3.07 (2.72, 3.46)*
Self-reported comorbid conditions      
  Cancer 1.05 (0.99, 1.10) 1.32 (1.24, 1.40)* 1.50 (1.28, 1.77)* 1.10 (0.99, 1.17) 1.47 (1.32, 1.63)*
  Diabetes 1.84 (1.69, 1.99)* 4.69 (4.43, 5.05)* 2.15 (1.85, 2.50)* 1.24 (1.16, 1.31)* 1.93 (1.77, 2.11)*
  Hypertension 1.70 (1.65, 1.76)* 3.66 (3.52, 3.79)* 2.14 (1.95, 2.35)* 1.28 (1.24, 1.32)* 1.52 (1.45, 1.60)*
  Kidney disease 1.02 (0.87, 1.18)* 1.52 (1.31, 1.77)* 3.10 (2.38, 4.01)* 0.60 (0.52, 0.68)* 1.77 (1.47, 2.13)*
  Myocardial infarction 1.19 (1.04, 1.35)* 1.96 (1.73, 2.23)* 2.89 (2.33, 2.59)* 1.24 (1.11, 1.38)* 2.54 (2.20, 2.94)*
  Coronary heart disease 1.27 (1.13, 1.42)* 1.92 (1.72, 2.14)* 2.30 (1.89 2.80)* 1.15 (1.04 1.25)* 2.15 (1.87, 2.44)*
  Stroke 1.07 (0.96, 1.20) 1.55 (1.38, 1.74)* 4.19 (3.45, 5.09)* 1.39 (1.25, 1.55)* 3.04 (2.67, 3.45)*
Sleep measure ( reference: healthy sleep )      
  Very short sleep 1.30 (1.19, 1.43)* 2.17 (1.97, 2.40)* -- -- --
  Short sleep 1.20 (1.16, 1.23)* 1.57 (1.52, 1.63)* -- -- --
  Long sleep 0.99 (0.94, 1.04) 1.20 (1.14, 1.26)* -- -- --
  1. Abbreviations: CI confidence interval, OR odds ratio.
  2. *P < 0.05.
  3. aThese measures were available from 2004 to 2009.
  4. Compares those with less high school education to person with a high school diploma or higher.