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Table 1 Characteristics of adult respondents in the National Health Interview Survey (1977–2009)

From: Associations between inadequate sleep and obesity in the US adult population: analysis of the national health interview survey (1977–2009)

Characteristics 1977 1983 1985 1990 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
N 18,386 9,931 28,999 35,466 24,092 24,290 18,804 18,067 16,926 21,788
Demographics and health risks           
Gender, female (%) 54.7 56.3 51.8 51.3 50.3 50.2 50.0 49.9 50.2 50.4
Age, years (mean (SD)) 42(15) 40(15) 40(17) 40(17) 42(17) 42(17) 42(18) 42(18) 42(19) 42(19)
Race/ethnicity (%)           
  Whites 88.6 85.7 85.7 84.0 83.4 83.0 81.5 81.4 81.2 81.0
  African Americans/Blacks 9.9 10.4 10.9 11.4 11.6 11.8 12.4 12.2 12.3 12.6
  Other 1.5 3.9 3.4 4.7 4.9 5.2 6.1 6.4 6.4 6.4
Education, ≥ HS (%) 71.3 76.7 79.3 81.9 87.8 88.0 87.7 88.3 88.4 88.7
Marital status (%)           
  Married 72.1 67.2 66.9 66.6 53.4 58.9 58.2 57.2 56.4 55.4
  Widowed, divorced & separated 13.9 13.8 12.6 13.5 21.8 15.9 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.6
  Single 14.0 19.0 20.5 19.9 24.8 25.2 25.8 26.7 27.4 28.0
Total family income, ≥$ 35 K (%) -- 22.2 29.8 45.5 64.1 65.4 64.9 68.8 70.4 70.0
Poverty status, below (%) -- 8.5 11.2 9.4 10.2 10.4 11.7 11.3 11.6 12.5
Ever smoked, yes (%) 58.4 55.1 55.5 50.8 42.4 42.5 41.8 41.4 42.0 42.4
Alcohol consumption (%)           
  Never drinkers -- -- -- 15.3 22.4 22.1 22.6 21.3 19.0 18.2
  Former drinkers -- -- -- 8.9 13.0 12.7 12.9 13.1 12.5 13.3
  Current drinkers -- -- -- 75.9 64.6 65.2 64.5 65.6 68.5 68.5
  Normal (%) 58.6 59.4 56.6 52.6 39.3 38.4 37.7 36.9 36.5 35.4
  Overweight (%) 31.2 29.1 31.6 33.4 36.9 37.1 36.2 36.8 36.0 36.9
  Obesity (%) 10.2 11.4 11.8 14.0 23.8 24.6 26.1 26.2 27.5 27.7
  Physical activity (%) -- -- -- -- 10.9 11.5 11.2 11.5 11.9 12.7
  Emotional distress (%) -- -- -- -- 3.3 3.0 3.2 2.8 3.4 3.5
Medical conditions           
  Diabetes (%) -- 3.6 -- -- 6.3 6.7 7.0 6.8 7.5 8.2
  Hypertension (%) -- 21.6 21.9 20.7 21.0 21.1 22.8 22.7 24.6 24.1
  Cancer (%) -- 2.9 -- -- 5.0 5.5 5.2 5.5 5.9 6.1
  Coronary heart disease (%) -- 1.7 -- -- 2.7 2.9 2.8 2.9 2.5 3.0
  Myocardial infarction (%) -- -- -- -- 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.1 2.4 2.2
  Stroke (%) -- 0.9 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.8 1.6
  Kidney disease (%) -- -- -- -- 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.2 1.4
Sleep measures           
Hours of sleep (mean (SD)) 7.4(1.3) 7.3(1.3) 7.4(1.5) 7.3(1.5) 7.1(1.5) 7.1(1.5) 7.1(1.6) 7.1(1.5) 7.1(1.6) 7.1(1.7)
Sleep duration categories (%)           
  Very short sleep 1.7 2.0 1.3 1.5 2.2 2.1 2.4 2.0 2.4 2.4
  Short sleep 19.7 21.0 20.8 23.0 26.8 26.9 27.1 25.4 26.6 26.7
  Normal sleep 66.8 67.5 67.1 66.6 63.7 63.6 63.5 65.6 63.5 63.0
  Long sleep 11.6 9.5 10.8 8.9 7.2 7.3 7.0 6.9 7.4 7.8
  1. Abbreviation: SD standard deviation.