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Table 1 Summary characteristics of included special events

From: A systematic review of special events to promote breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening in the United States

Single component articles  
Author (year) Cancer focus Data collection Participants Sample (N) Special event description Follow-up period Results Cost
Dolin & Butterfield [26] Breast and cervical Post-test only White women from a mid-eastern U.S. city 67 Type: Health fair At event Screening: Not reported
Event components:   Scheduled breast and cervical screening appointment:
• Group Education and one-on-one education (treatment and control)   Treatment: 41%
Control: 25%
• Small media (breast self-examination educational information) (treatment)   p-value <.015
Referral to screenings
Community Guide strategies:1 GE, 1on1, SM, RSB
Englisbe et al. [34] Breast Post-event only Low income, minority women in targeted zip codes in Albany, NY, 63% no prior mammogram 50 Type: Special day At event Screening: $2,500
Event components:   Mammography: 44 (88%)
• Transportation to mammography appointments on Mother’s Day and Valentine’s Day
• Educational materials (e.g. totes and t-shirts with health messages)
Provide reduced cost mammograms
Community Guide strategies: RSB, ROPC, SM
Fournier et al. [27] Breast & cervical Post-event only Residents of Big Pine Key and Key West, Florida 1279 over 2 yrs Type: Health fair (offered twice) At event Screening: $7,000
Event Components:   Mammography (1997):
• Free clinical exams: breast and cervical (1996 & 1997)   Total: 34 (4.8%)
• Free cancer screening: mammograms (1997)   Clinical Exams (1996–1997):
Clinical Breast Exams:
133 (10.4%)
Patient education Clinical Female Pelvic Exam (1996–1997): 151 (8.5%)
Community Guide strategies: 1 on 1, ROPC RSB
Resnick [28] Breast, cervical & colorectal Post-event only Residents over 90 years of age (mostly female) living in a continuing-care retirement community (location not specified) 51 Type: Health fair At event Screening: Not reported
Event components:   Pap Tests: 2 (3.9%)
• Clinical exams   Returned FOBT cards: 15 (29.4%)
• Cancer screening; breast exams, pap tests, and stools for occult blood test Clinical Exams:
One-on-one education sessions to discuss screening options and chose the relevant screenings   Clinical Breast Exams: 8 (15.7%)
Community Guide strategies: ROPC, 1 on 1, RSB
Gellert et al. [33] Breast & colorectal Pre-event and post-event Native Hawaiians in Molokai, Hawaii 73 Type: Cultural festival Weekly up to 6 mo Screening : Not reported
Event Components: Colorectal Cancer (FOBT) (28 men ≥ 50 years old):
• Cancer 101 group session   Pre-event: 11 (39%)
• One-on-one education   Follow-up: 21 (75%)
• Screening: breast exams and colorectal cancers kits   p-value= .002
• Follow-up letter at 1 month and up to 6 months phone call to assist with obtaining insurance, scheduling appts., and transportation   Colorectal Cancer (FOBT) (25 women ≥ 50 years old):
Pre-event: 9 (36%)
Community Guide strategies: ROPC, 1 on1, GE, RSB Follow-up: 19 (76%)
Mammography (38 women ≥ 40 years old):
Pre-event: 25 (66%)
Follow-up: 32 (84%)
Clinical Exams:
Clinical Breast Exam:
Pre-test: 25 (66%)
Post-test: 38 (100%)
Byrne and Robles-Rodriguez [31] Breast Post-event only Underserved, minority women aged 18–70 in Camden County, New Jersey 568 Type: Party (offered 25 times) 2 days Screening and Clinical Exams: Not reported
Event Components: After the event Mammograms and clinical breast exams:2 301
• Group education
Referrals for screening
Community Guide strategies: GE, RSB
Cueva et al. [35] Colorectal Post-event only Alaska Natives and American Indians in Alaska 172 Type: Play At event Other Outcomes: Not reported
Event Components:   Increased intention to get screened: 37/124 (30% )
• Group education
• Theatre script for all participants (readers and listeners)
Community Guide strategies: GE,SM
Elmunzer et al. [29] Colorectal Post-event only Uninsured, mostly minority patients older than 50 years who had not undergone CRC screening in the past 10 years in Miami, FL 52 Type: Health fair At event Screening: $6,531
Event Components:   Flexible Sigmoidoscopy: 52 (100% of attendees; 61.8% of scheduled)
Sigmoidoscopy Screening
Community Guide strategies: RSB, ROPC
Multi-component articles
Goldsmith and Sisneros [32] Breast and cervical Pre-event and post-event Migrant and seasonal low income, mostly Hispanic female farmworkers, aged 18+, in California’s Central Valley 1732 Type: Party 45 Days Screening: Not reported
Event Components:   Pap Tests: 183 (10.6%)
Mammograms: 29 (1.7%)
Clinical Breast Exams: 105 (6.1%)
• Group education
• Outreach activities (transportation, criteria for free screening and
• Scheduling screening appointments)
• Screening referrals (vouchers provided)
Community Guide strategies: GE, 1 on1,
Wu et al. [30] Colorectal Pre-event and post-event Mostly uninsured Asian Americans, 50-years or older, at high-risk of colorectal cancer in Michigan 400 Type: Health fair 6-12 mo Screening: Not reported
Event Components:   FOBT: 70 (45%)
• Group seminars were on early detection of colorectal cancer   Colonoscopy: 45 (29%)
Flexible Sigmoidoscopy: 2 (1%)
• Provision of low cost FOBT kits   FOBT and Flexible Sigmoidoscopy: 4 (2%)
Other outcomes:
• Educational brochures were distributed in all relevant Asian languages Intention to get screened: 175 (57.6%)
Community Guide strategies: GE, RSB
  1. Note. 1Community Guide recommended strategies abbreviations: BC = Breast Cancer Screening, CC = Cervical Cancer Screening, CRC = Colorectal Cancer Screening, ROPC = Reducing Out-of-Pocket Costs, GE = Group Education, 1 on 1 = One-on-One Education, MM = Mass Media, SM = Small Media, RSB = Reducing Structural Barriers. 2 Screening numbers for mammograms and CBE were given in aggregate so no percentages could be calculated.