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Table 1 Characteristics of the study sample and comparison of observed and imputed data (N = 10,714)

From: Parental separation and adult psychological distress: an investigation of material and relational mechanisms

     Imputed
  Missing (%) Observed (%)a Imputed (%)a Parental separation (%) No parental separation (%)
Psychological distress (30 yrs)      
  Median [IQR] 0b 3 [1-5] 3 [1-5] 3 [1-6] 2 [1-5]
Parental separation (0–16 yrs)      
  No separation 41.1 79.8 79.8 - -
  Separation   20.2 20.2 - -
Gender (0 yrs)      
  Men 8.0 48.6 48.9 49.3 48.7
  Women   51.4 51.1 50.7 51.3
Adolescent material advantage (16 yrs)      
  Mean [SD] 34.1 0.01 (1.00) −0.04 (1.03) −0.61 (1.19) 0.11 (0.93)
  Educational attainment (26 yrs)      
  No qualifications 35.7 4.8 6.0 9.5 5.1
  CSE 2-5/O-level   58.9 60.7 67.2 59.0
  A-level   10.8 10.2 8.0 10.8
  Higher qualification/degree   25.5 23.1 15.4 25.1
Adult social class (30 yrs)      
  Professional (I) 18.2 6.4 6.1 4.3 6.6
  Managerial/technical (II)   34.9 34.0 29.8 35.1
  Skilled non-manual (IIINM)   24.8 24.9 24.5 25.0
  Skilled manual (IIIM)   20.5 21.0 24.9 20.0
  Semi-skilled manual (IV)   10.8 11.1 13.1 10.6
  Unskilled manual (V)   2.7 2.8 3.4 2.7
Adult housing tenure (30 yrs)      
  Own/mortgage 0.9 65.1 65.0 57.5 67.0
  Social housing   13.9 13.9 20.0 12.3
  Privately-rented   12.0 12.0 14.1 11.4
  Other   9.1 9.1 8.4 9.3
Parent–child relationship quality (16 yrs)      
  Mean [SD] 54.2 −0.02 (0.77) 0.01 (0.75) 0.09 (0.77) −0.01 (0.75)
Partnership status (30 yrs)      
  Cohabiting 0.01 21.5 21.5 23.1 21.1
  Single   28.2 28.2 29.0 27.9
  Married   42.3 42.3 38.4 43.3
  Remarried   1.6 1.6 1.9 1.5
  Separated/divorced   6.5 6.5 7.6 6.2
Father’s social class (0 yrs)      
  Professional (I) 8.4 5.4 5.4 3.3 6.0
  Managerial/technical (II)   12.5 12.5 10.0 13.1
  Skilled non-manual (IIINM)   13.1 13.0 10.4 13.7
  Skilled manual (IIIM)   46.4 46.4 47.6 46.1
  Semi-skilled manual (IV)   14.1 14.1 16.3 13.5
  Unskilled manual (V)   8.5 8.7 12.4 7.7
Mother’s education (0 yrs)      
  Stayed beyond minimum age 8.6 35.9 36.1 31.9 37.2
  Left at or before minimum age   64.1 63.9 68.1 62.8
Mother’s age (0 yrs)      
  Mean yrs [SD] 8.0 26.2 (5.30) 26.2 (5.32) 24.3 (4.8) 26.7 (5.3)
  1. aOnly %s are given as Ns vary across the 20 imputed datasets. bNo participants have missing values on psychological distress as we only impute and analyse data on those with complete information on this variable.
  2. Abbreviations: A-level Advanced level, CSE Certificate of Secondary Education, O-level ordinary level, SD standard deviation, IQR interquartile range.