Skip to main content

Table 4 Regional differences in public perceptions and behaviors regarding Q fever in the Netherlands (high, medium, and low incidence regions)

From: Q fever in the Netherlands: public perceptions and behavioral responses in three different epidemiological regions: a follow-up study

  Survey 1 (August 2009) - baseline Survey 2 (April 2010) - first follow-up Survey 3 (April 2012)-second follow-up -
  Region 1: high incidence (n = 459) Region 2: medium incidence (n = 491) Region 3: low incidence (n = 397) p-valuea Region 1: high incidence (n = 430) Region 2: medium incidence (n = 456) Region 3: low incidence (n = 363) p-valuea Region 1: high incidence (n = 354) Region 2: medium incidence (n = 375) Region 3: low incidence (n = 277) p-valuea
  Meanb Meanb Meanb   Meanb Meanb Meanb   Meanb Meanb Meanb  
Knowlegde             
 Summary score – Chronbach’s alpha 0.6 2.99 2.73 2.45 <0.001 4.02 3.67 3.68 0.001 3.55 3.44 3.22 0.04
Perceived severity             
 1. “Q fever is a severe disease” 3.50 3.58 3.49 ns 3.75 3.81 3.80 ns 3.90 3.90 3.86 ns
 2. “Q fever is very harmful for my health” 3.44 3.48 3.42 ns 3.64 3.65 3.66 ns 3.69 3.76 3.75 ns
 3. Severity of getting Q fever coming year 3.68 3.68 3.65 ns 4.02 3.95 3.84 0.03 4.11 4.12 4.02 ns
 Summary score – Chronbach’s alpha 0.7 3.54 3.58 3.52 ns 3.80 3.81 3.77 ns 3.90 3.93 3.88 ns
Perceived vulnerability             
 1. Perceived susceptibility for oneself 2.73 2.60 2.58 0.003 2.73 2.67 2.61 ns 2.72 2.72 2.54 0.003
 2. Perceived chance of getting infected coming year 2.73 2.67 2.60 ns 2.29 2.19 2.11 0.02 2.12 2.10 1.87 <0.001
Perceived anxiety [scale 1–5]             
 1. Worried about Q fever 2.25 2.18 2.10 0.02 2.47 2.31 2.30 0.004 2.25 2.18 2.06 0.02
 2. Fear for Q fever 2.16 2.09 2.07 ns 2.29 2.22 2.18 ns 2.20 2.14 2.03 0.03
 3. Thinking of Q fever 1.91 1.68 1.60 <0.001 2.12 1.94 1.86 <0.001 1.76 1.67 1.54 <0.001
 Summary score – Chronbach’s alpha 0.8 2.11 1.98 1.92 <0.001 2.29 2.15 2.12 <0.001 2.07 2.00 1.88 0.001
Perceived efficacy [scale 1–5]             
 1. Practice better hygiene 3.63 3.50 3.58 ns 3.31 3.28 3.36 ns 3.27 3.35 3.41 ns
 2. Avoid Q fever affected regions 3.63 3.63 3.66 ns 3.90 3.91 3.96 ns 4.04 4.11 4.15 ns
 3. Avoid contact with goats and sheep 4.22 4.17 3.98 <0.001 4.32 4.25 4.18 ns 4.29 4.28 4.27 ns
 4. Do not use raw dairy products 3.61 3.49 3.64 ns 3.61 3.65 3.70 ns 3.81 3.87 3.86 ns
 5. Wear face mask 2.68 2.57 2.73 ns 2.83 2.79 2.95 ns 3.22 3.27 3.39 ns
 6. Move to place without Q fever 2.26 2.03 2.37 <0.001 2.69 2.50 2.66 ns 3.19 3.01 3.24 0.04
 7. Seek medical consultation with onset of symptoms 3.62 3.58 3.50 ns 3.53 3.39 3.46 ns 3.46 3.42 3.37 ns
 8. Take antibiotics 3.07 2.95 3.01 ns 2.97 2.87 2.96 ns 3.11 3.11 3.13 ns
 Summary score – Chronbach’s alpha 0.7 3.34 3.24 3.31 0.03 3.39 3.34 3.40 ns 3.55 3.55 3.60 ns
Perceived self-efficacyc [scale 1–5]             
 1. Practice better hygiene 4.38 4.31 4.27 ns 4.18 4.26 4.19 ns 4.25 4.18 4.20 ns
 2. Avoid Q fever affected regions 3.57 3.73 3.90 <0.001 3.55 3.78 4.02 <0.001 3.58 3.81 3.99 <0.001
 3. Avoid contact with goats and sheep 4.35 4.22 4.21 0.04 4.28 4.25 4.25 ns 4.23 4.19 4.26 ns
 4. Do not use raw dairy products 3.99 3.90 3.95 ns 3.94 3.90 4.03 ns 3.84 3.94 4.05 0.03
 5. Wear face mask 3.13 3.07 3.27 ns 3.02 3.00 3.27 0.003 3.07 3.12 3.31 0.04
 6. Move to place without Q fever 1.74 1.76 2.13 <0.001 1.90 1.88 2.23 <0.001 2.00 2.04 2.28 0.006
 7. Seek medical consultation with onset of symptoms 4.24 4.20 4.16 ns 4.06 4.01 4.07 ns 4.03 4.03 4.03 ns
 8. Take antibiotics 4.04 3.96 3.95 ns 3.83 3.80 3.81 ns 3.91 3.87 3.92 ns
 Summary score – Chronbach’s alpha 0.8 3.68 3.64 3.73 ns 3.60 3.61 3.73 0.008 3.62 3.65 3.76 0.04
Intentionc [scale 1–5]             
 1. Practice better hygiene 4.39 4.32 4.25 0.046 4.20 4.22 4.06 0.048 4.18 4.17 4.09 ns
 2. Avoid Q fever affected regions 3.77 3.87 3.97 0.04 3.69 3.85 3.95 0.006 3.82 4.02 4.00 0.02
 3. Avoid contact with goats and sheep 4.39 4.30 4.19 0.01 4.29 4.23 4.20 ns 4.25 4.25 4.18 ns
 4. Do not use raw dairy products 4.06 3.91 3.96 ns 3.95 3.87 3.99 ns 3.94 4.00 3.94 ns
 5. Wear face mask 3.14 3.03 3.14 ns 2.92 2.94 3.17 0.01 3.06 3.12 3.17 ns
 6. Move to place without Q fever 1.73 1.70 1.98 <0.001 1.80 1.87 2.12 <0.001 1.96 1.98 2.20 0.02
 7. Seek medical consultation with onset of symptoms 4.23 4.15 4.12 ns 4.01 3.99 3.95 ns 3.92 3.89 3.85 ns
 8. Take antibiotics 3.95 3.88 3.87 ns 3.73 3.68 3.73 ns 3.82 3.68 3.67 ns
 Summary score – Chronbach’s alpha 0.8 3.71 3.65 3.69 ns 3.57 3.58 3.64 ns 3.62 3.64 3.64 ns
  1. ns = not statistically significant; ap-value obtained using ANOVA with sex, age, education, and employment status as confounders; bmeans are corrected for differences in sex, age, education, and employment status;
  2. crespondents were asked to imagine that governmental health institutes would recommend the preventive measure.