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Table 3 Differences of Life expectancies between the industrialized county and the reference county at all four stages

From: The impact of petrochemical industrialisation on life expectancy and per capita income in Taiwan: an 11-year longitudinal study

Period All Male Female       
  Difference Mean ( SD) p-value Difference Mean ( SD) p-value Difference Mean ( SD) p-value
Life expectancy at birth
Pre-industrialisation 0.79* (0.24) 0.02 0.83* (0.25) 0.02 0.85* (0.25) 0.01
Short-term industrialisation 0.92 (0.45) 0.07 1.43* (0.49) 0.02 0.27 (0.39) 0.45
Intermittent industrialisation 1.37** (0.18) <0.01 1.88*** (0.10) <.0001 0.66 (0.35) 0.08
Long-term industrialisation 1.49* (0.33) 0.01 1.93* (0.35) <0.01 0.76* (0.30) 0.03
Life expectancy at age 5
Pre-industrialisation 0.89* (0.89) 0.02 1.01* (0.27) 0.01 0.84* (0.27) 0.02
Short-term industrialisation 0.99* (0.39) 0.03 1.51* (0.41) 0.01 0.33 (0.36) 0.33
Intermittent industrialisation 1.47** (0.24) <0.01 2.04*** (0.14) <.0001 0.68 (0.41) 0.11
Long-term industrialisation 1.62** (0.29) <0.01 2.13** (0.29) <0.01 0.81** (0.28) 0.02
Life expectancy at age 65
Pre-industrialisation 0.61* (0.22) 0.03 0.85** (0.18) <0.01 0.75* (0.27) 0.03
Short-term industrialisation 0.42 (0.24) 0.10 0.84* (0.25) 0.01 0.30 (0.25) 0.21
Intermittent industrialisation 0.77* (0.26) 0.02 1.16** (0.19) <0.01 0.68* (0.33) 0.07
Long-term industrialisation 0.86** (0.18) <0.01 1.33** (0.14) <0.01 0.62* (0.21) 0.02
  1. Note. Pre-industrialisation (1996–1998); Short-term industrialisation (1999–2001); Intermittent industrialisation (2002–2004); Long-term industrialisation (2005–2007).
  2. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001.