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Table 6 Bivariate and multivariable analyses of sample and housing characteristics and occupants’ self-reported poor health, Greater Accra Region, Ghana, 2012

From: Residential characteristics as correlates of occupants’ health in the greater Accra region, Ghana

Variable Self-rated occupant’s health Unadjusted OR, 95% CI P = Value Multivariable analysis (R 2 = 33.8) Adjusted ORs (95% CI)
Good health n(%) Poor heath n(%)
Sex      
  Male 245(96.8) 8(3.2) 1   1
  Female 229(92.7) 18(7.3) 2.41 [1.03-5.64] 0.044 2.98 [1.06-8.35]
Employment status      
  Formal 188(97.9) 4(2.1) 1   1
  Informal 285(92.9) 22(7.1) 3.62 [1.23-10.66] 0.013 0.79 [0.63-0.99]
Income      
  High 100(99.0) 1(1.0) 1   1
  Low 374(93.7) 25(6.3) 6.68 [0.90-49.93] 0.041 [not included]
# of windows per bedroom      
  2 or more 393(96.3) 15(3.7) 1   1
  < 2 windows 81(88.0) 11(12.0) 3.56 [1.58-8.03] 0.03 1.33[0.90-1.96]
House wall material      
  Cement 367[95.1] 19[4.9] 1   1
  Non-cement 107[93.9] 7[6.1] 1.26 [0.52-3.09] 0.63 [not included]
Odour present      
  No 370(96.1 15(3.9) 1   1
  Yes 104(90.4) 11(9.6) 2.61 [1.16-5.85] 0.028 2.67 [0.68-10.43]
Stale air present      
  No 378(96.7) 13(3.3) 1   1
  Yes 96(88.1) 13(11.9) 3.94 [1.77-8.77] 0.001 3.89 [0.91-10.45]
Has privacy 1 in the house      
  Yes 403(97.3) 11(2.7) 1   1
  No 71(82.6) 15(17.4) 7.74 [3.41-17.54] <0.001 8.16 [2.86-23.26]
Location      
  Outside Accra 89(89.0) 11(11.0) 1   1
  Within Accra 385(96.3) 15(3.7) 0.32 [0.14-0.71] 0.009 0.14 [0.04-0.53]
Shares toilet facility      
  No 263(96.7) 9(3.3) 1   1
  Yes 211(92.5) 17(7.5) 2.35 [1.03-5.39] 0.044 1.55 [0.44-5.44]
Hand washing facility      
  Present 226(97.0) 7(3.0) 1   1
  Absent 248(92.9) 19(7.1) 2.47 [1.02-5.99] 0.044 1.03 [0.36-2.91]
Type of house      
  Self-contained* 303(96.5) 11(3.5) 1   1
  Not self-contained/other 171(91.9) 15(8.1) 2.42 [1.09-5.38] 0.036 0.804 [0.25-2.57]
House needs repair      
  No 277(98.2) 5(1.8) 1   1
  Yes 197(90.4) 21(9.6) 5.91 [2.19-15.91] <0.001 1.877 [0.68-5.91]
  1. Note: Significance considered at p-value < 0.05 and if the OR estimate did not cross the null for 95% CI. Fishers Exact Test used for small cell counts. *Self-contained – means house has an inbuilt sanitary and kitchen facilities.
  2. 1Privacy in a house–response to the question: ‘Do you have privacy at home?’
  3. The final model included: type of house, house wall material, shared toilet, hand washing facility, number of windows per bedroom, sex, employment status, household income, stale air present, odour present, house needs repair, has privacy in the house, and location.