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Table 5 Factors associated with intimate partner violence exposure in the previous year in female patients

From: A cross-sectional study identifying the pattern of factors related to psychological intimate partner violence exposure in Slovenian family practice attendees: what hurt them the most

  No IPV n = 242 Psych IPV n = 46 cOR (95% CI) p aOR (95% CI) p
Female gender     -   -
Marital status       
  Married or living in intimate partnership 172 (71.1) 38 (82.6) 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)  
  Widowed 38 (15.7) 4 (8.7) 0.48 (0.16–1.42) 0.182 0.60 (0.08–4.31) 0.613
  Single 32 (13.2) 4 (8.7) 0.57 (0.19–1.70) 0.309 0.40 (0.05–3.02) 0.373
Divorce in the past 50 (20.7) 12 (26.1) 1.36 (0.65–2.81) 0.413 1.06 (0.31–3.56) 0.929
Living in urban setting 217 (89.7) 41 (89.1) 0.95 (0.34–2.61) 0.913 0.84 (0.22–3.24) 0.805
Employment status       
  Regularly employed 151 (62.4) 20 (43.5) 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)  
  Retired 63 (26.0) 12 (26.1) 1.44 (0.66–3.12) 0.357 1.71 (0.41–7.07) 0.458
  Unemployed or working part time 28 (11.6) 14 (30.4) 3.78 (1.71–8.34) 0.001 7.82 (2.20–27.85) 0.002
Level of education       
  Elementary school 27 (11.2) 4 (8.7) 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)  
  High school 103 (42.6) 20 (43.5) 1.31 (0.41–4.16) 0.646 1.55 (0.31–7.69) 0.593
  College degree or more 112 (46.3) 22 (47.8) 1.33 (0.42–4.17) 0.629 2.02 (0.38–10.80) 0.411
Below-average monthly income per family member 137 (56.6) 29 (63.0) 1.31 (0.68–2.51) 0.419 1.34 (0.47–3.87) 0.587
Financial support provided by state 62 (25.6) 11 (23.9) 0.91 (0.44–1.91) 0.807 1.13 (0.37–3.51) 0.829
The length of intimate relationship ≥6 years 142 (58.7) 35 (76.1) 2.24 (1.09–4.62) 0.029 2.75 (0.63–12.08) 0.181
Alcohol or drug consumption in the family 65 (26.9) 22 (47.8) 2.50 (1.31–4.76) 0.005 2.33 (0.92–5.94) 0.075
Age       
  35 years or less 79 (32.6) 11 (23.9) 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)  
  36–64 years 125 (51.7) 28 (60.9) 1.61 (0.76–3.41) 0.215 1.32 (0.36–4.87) 0.673
  65 years or more 38 (15.7) 7 (15.2) 1.32 (0.48–3.68) 0.592 1.06 (0.13–8.51) 0.956
Parenting       
  No 60 (24.8) 8 (17.4) 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)  
  One child 67 (27.7) 17 (37.0) 1.90 (0.77–4.73) 0.166 0.80 (0.16–4.01) 0.785
  Two children or more 115 (47.5) 21 (45.7) 1.37 (0.57–3.28) 0.480 0.51 (0.10–2.64) 0.425
Older intimate partner 101 (41.7) 22 (47.8) 1.28 (0.68–2.41) 0.445 1.35 (0.53–3.46) 0.532
Patient’s MCR: personality disorders 13 (5.4) 5 (10.9) 2.15 (0.73–6.35) 0.167 0.85 (0.20–3.59) 0.824
Patient’s MCR: domestic violence exposure in primary family 67 (27.7) 17 (37.0) 1.53 (0.79–2.97) 0.207 0.82 (0.31–2.19) 0.690
Patient’s MCR: history of disputes in intimate relationship 64 (26.4) 37 (80.4) 11.43 (5.23–25.01) <0.001 9.12 (3.34–24.89) <0.001
Patient’s MCR: financial difficulties and instability 128 (52.9) 37 (80.4) 3.66 (1.69–7.92) 0.001 1.45 (0.41–5.09) 0.567
Patient’s MCR: dysfunctional family relations 113 (46.7) 36 (78.3) 4.11 (1.95–8.66) <0.001 2.35 (0.78–7.04) 0.127
Patient’s MCR: history of unemployment 70 (28.9) 20 (43.5) 1.89 (0.99–3.61) 0.053 0.44 (0.15–1.30) 0.137
Patient’s MCR: muscular inflammations 101 (41.7) 28 (60.9) 2.17 (1.14–4.14) 0.018 1.20 (0.51–2.85) 0.673
Patient’s MCR: gynaecological disorders. inflammations 137 (56.6) 34 (73.9) 2.17 (1.07–4.40) 0.031 1.67 (0.58–4.80) 0.339
Patient’s MCR: complications during pregnancy/spontaneous abortions 55 (22.7) 13 (28.3) 1.34 (0.66–2.72) 0.419 0.61 (0.18–2.12) 0.437
Patient’s MCR: the onset of depression and/or generalised anxiety disorder 160 (66.1) 42 (91.3) 5.38 (1.87–15.53) 0.002 1.25 (0.22–7.01) 0.797
Patient’s MCR: eating and sleeping disorders 93 (38.4) 24 (52.2) 1.75 (0.93–3.29) 0.084 1.13 (0.45–2.81) 0.792
Patient’s MCR: phobias and panic attacks 84 (34.7) 26 (56.5) 2.45 (1.29–4.64) 0.006 1.59 (0.59–4.29) 0.360
Patient’s MCR: low level of self-esteem: expressing shame and guilt 100 (41.3) 33 (71.7) 3.61 (1.81–7.19) <0.001 1.27 (0.42–3.84) 0.667
Patient’s MCR: post-traumatic stress disorder 85 (35.1) 27 (58.7) 2.63 (1.38–5.00) 0.003 0.83 (0.28–2.43) 0.731
Patient’s MCR: psychosomatic disorders 174 (71.9) 42 (91.3) 4.10 (1.42–11.88) 0.009 0.82 (0.18–3.65) 0.793
  1. cOR: crude odds ratio.
  2. aOR: adjusted odds ratio – adjusted for age and all other independent variables in the table.
  3. Patient’s MCR: Patient’s Medical Chart Review.
  4. A Logistic Regression Model: χ 2 = 83.530, df = 32, p < 0.001, Nagelkerke R2 = 0.431.