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Table 4 Factors associated with intimate partner violence exposure in the previous year

From: A cross-sectional study identifying the pattern of factors related to psychological intimate partner violence exposure in Slovenian family practice attendees: what hurt them the most

  No IPV n = 413 Psych IPV n = 57 cOR (95% CI) p aOR (95% CI) p
Female gender 242 (58.6) 46 (80.7) 2.96 (1.49–5.87) 0.002 2.44 (0.96–6.18) 0.060
Marital status       
   Married or living in intimate partnership 306 (74.1) 46 (80.7) 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)  
   Widowed 50 (12.1) 4 (7.0) 0.53 (0.18–1.54) 0.245 0.90 (0.15–5.32) 0.905
   Single 57 (13.8) 7 (12.3) 0.82 (0.35–1.90) 0.639 1.06 (0.19–5.85) 0.949
Divorce in the past 76 (18.4) 12 (21.1) 1.18 (0.60–2.34) 0.631 0.69 (0.25–1.88) 0.468
Living in urban setting 366 (88.6) 51 (89.5) 1.09 (0.44–2.68) 0.849 1.09 (0.35–3.37) 0.877
Employment status       
   Regularly employed 248 (60.0) 25 (43.9) 1.00 (reference   1.00 (reference)  
   Retired 104 (25.2) 15 (26.3) 1.43 (0.73–2.82) 0.302 2.18 (0.66–7.13) 0.199
   Unemployed or working part time 61 (14.8) 17 (29.8) 2.77 (1.41–5.44) 0.003 5.82 (2.09–16.17) 0.001
Level of education       
   Elementary school 48 (11.6) 4 (7.0) 1.00 (reference   1.00 (reference)  
   High school 180 (43.6) 23 (40.4) 1.53 (0.51–4.65) 0.450 2.30 (0.58–9.14) 0.237
   College degree or more 185 (44.8) 30 (52.6) 1.95 (0.65–5.79) 0.231 4.78 (1.09–20.96) 0.038
Below-average monthly income per family member 232 (56.2) 34 (59.6) 1.15 (0.66–2.03) 0.620 0.95 (0.39–2.28) 0.904
Financial support provided by state 99 (24.0) 16 (28.1) 1.24 (0.67–2.30) 0.500 1.35 (0.55–3.34) 0.511
The length of intimate relationship ≥6 years 262 (63.4) 43 (75.4) 1.77 (0.94–3.34) 0.078 4.25 (1.01–17.85) 0.048
Alcohol or drug consumption in the family 112 (27.1) 24 (42.1) 1.96 (1.11–3.45) 0.021 1.55 (0.71–3.37) 0.272
Age       
   35 years or less 124 (30.0) 15 (26.3) 1.00 (reference   1.00 (reference)  
   36–64 years 221 (53.5) 33 (57.9) 1.23 (0.65–2.36) 0.525 0.92 (0.31–2.74) 0.885
   65 years or more 68 (16.5) 9 (15.8) 1.09 (0.46–2.63) 0.841 1.03 (0.19–5.49) 0.976
Parenting       
   No 114 (27.6) 12 (21.1) 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)  
   One child 98 (23.7) 19 (33.3) 1.84 (0.85–3.98) 0.121 0.68 (0.19–2.40) 0.547
   Two children or more 201 (48.7) 26 (45.6) 1.23 (0.60–2.53) 0.576 0.51 (0.14–1.88) 0.315
Older intimate partner 112 (27.1) 24 (42.1) 1.96 (1.11–3.45) 0.021 1.88 (0.80–4.42) 0.150
Patient’s MCR: personality disorders 26 (6.3) 7 (12.3) 2.08 (0.86–5.05) 0.104 0.88 (0.29–2.72) 0.828
Patient’s MCR: domestic violence exposure in primary family 103 (24.9) 23 (40.4) 2.04 (1.15–3.62) 0.015 1.35 (0.60–3.06) 0.466
Patient’s MCR: history of disputes in intimate relationship 104 (25.2) 46 (80.7) 12.43 6.21–24.88) <0.001 13.85 (5.72–33.55) <0.001
Patient’s MCR: financial difficulties and instability 227 (55.0) 44 (77.2) 2.77 (1.45–5.30) 0.002 1.22 (0.46–3.27) 0.686
Patient’s MCR: dysfunctional family relations 189 (45.8) 42 (73.7) 3.32 (1.78–6.17) <0.001 1.37 (0.59–3.18) 0.467
Patient’s MCR: history of unemployment 130 (31.5) 26 (45.6) 1.82 (1.04–3.20) 0.035 0.66 (0.26–1.68) 0.386
Patient’s MCR: muscular inflammations 176 (42.6) 35 (61.4) 2.14 (1.21–3.78) 0.009 1.18 (0.56–2.52) 0.662
Patient’s MCR: gynaecological disorders, inflammations 137 (33.2) 34 (59.6) 2.98 (1.69–5.25) <0.001 0.98 (0.43–2.24) 0.959
Patient’s MCR: complications during pregnancy/spontaneous abortions 55 (13.3) 13 (22.8) 1.92 (1.09–4.13) 0.060 1.07 (0.36–3.17) 0.909
Patient’s MCR: the onset of depression and/or generalised anxiety disorder 272 (65.9) 51 (89.5) 4.41 (1.85–10.52) 0.001 1.39 (0.37–5.23) 0.630
Patient’s MCR: eating and sleeping disorders 151 (36.6) 29 (50.9) 1.80 (1.03–3.14) 0.039 0.93 (0.42–2.03) 0.849
Patient’s MCR: phobias and panic attacks 144 (34.9) 33 (57.9) 2.57 (1.46–4.51) 0.001 2.30 (0.97–5.44) 0.057
Patient’s MCR: low level of self-esteem: Expressing shame and guilt 173 (41.9) 39 (68.4) 3.01 (1.66–5.43) <0.001 1.32 (0.53–3.31) 0.550
Patient’s MCR: post-traumatic stress disorder 148 (35.8) 33 (57.9) 2.46 (1.40–4.32) 0.002 0.80 (0.33–1.97) 0.632
Patient’s MCR: psychosomatic disorders 292 (70.7) 50 (87.7) 2.96 (1.31–6.71) 0.009 0.63 (0.19–2.10) 0.451
  1. cOR: crude odds ratio.
  2. aOR: adjusted odds ratio – adjusted for age, gender, and all other independent variables in the table.
  3. Patient’s MCR: Patient’s Medical Chart Review.
  4. A Logistic Regression Model: χ 2 = 114.112, df = 33, p < 0.001, Nagelkerke R2 = 0.413.