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Table 3 Internalizing and externalizing problems in cases and controls according to the Youth Self-Report/YSR

From: Evaluating the effectiveness of a training program that builds teachers’ capability to identify and appropriately refer middle and high school students with mental health problems in Brazil: an exploratory study

Internalizing and externalizing problems Cases* Controls**  
N = 26 N = 26  
N (%) N (%) p***
(1) Internalizing only 4 (15.4) 12 (46.2) 0.003
(2) Externalizing only 1 (3.8) 3 (11.5)  
(3) Both 9 (34.6) 0 (0.0)  
(4) None 12 (46.2) 11 (42.3)  
(1) vs. (4)      0.090
(2) vs. (4)      0.315
(3) vs. (4)      0.010
  1. *Cases = Students identified by teachers as possibly having mental health problems (included in hypothetical referral lists before training).
  2. **Controls = Students not included in teachers’ hypothetical referral lists, matched by age, gender and grade.
  3. ***Chi-square test.