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Table 2 Results of individual studies

From: Incidence rates of sickness absence related to mental disorders: a systematic literature review

Author(s) Country Mental disorders Measure Denominator Numerator Reported incidence
Social democratic
Virtanen et al. [24] FI Mental and behavioral disorders including: depressive disorders, mania and bipolar affective disorder, anxiety disorders (phobias, panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder), reaction to severe stress and adjustment disorders, personality disorder, schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders and mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use (ICD-10 Chapter F) Study participants followed for an average of 6.3 years n = 141,917 Depressive disorder = 2,679 Cumulative incidence of disability benefit receipt:
       Depressive disorders = 1.9%
    Cumulative incidence    
      Mania and bipolar affective disorder =150 Mania and bipolar affective disorder = 0.1%
      Anxiety disorder = 314 Anxiety disorder = 0.2%
      Reaction to severe stress and adjustment disorders = 275 Reaction to severe stress and adjustment disorders = 0.2%
      Adult personality and behaviour disorders = 54 Adult personality and behaviour disorders = 0.04%
      Schizophrenia and schizotypal and delusional disorder = 283 Schizophrenia and schizotypal and delusional disorder = 0.2%
      Mental and behavioural disorders owing to psychoactive substance use = 62 Mental and behavioural disorders owing to psychoactive substance use = 0.04%
Roelen et al. [28] NL Common mental disorders (CMD) included distress (ICD-10 R45), other stress-related disorders (ICD-10 F43), depressive disorders (ICD-10 F32) and anxiety disorders (ICD-10 F40 and F41)   Total Employees: Number of episodes: 12-month incidence of sickness absence for CMD by year/100 employees (95% CI):
    Dynamic cohort study 12-month incidence of total certified sickness absence = number of medically certified sickness absence episodes/number of employees covered    
     2001 = 956,623 2001 = 21,140 2001 = 2.2 (2.2, 2.2)
     2002 = 962,235 2002 = 22,803 2002 = 2.4 (2.3, 2.4)
     2003 = 937,030 2003 = 24,917 2003 = 2.7 (2.6, 2.7)
     2004 = 1,037,149 2004 = 27,533 2004 = 2.7 (2.6, 2.7)
     2005 = 961,890 2005 = 22,682 2005 = 2.4 (2.3, 2.4)
     2006 = 970,390 2006 = 20,013 2006 = 2.1 (2, 2.1)
     2007 = 921,741 2007 = 18,513 2007 = 2 (2, 2)
Koopmans et al. [26] NL Common mental disorders (CMD) from medical certification: stress-related (distress and adjustment disorders) (ICD-10 R45, F43) and psychiatric (mild to moderate depressive and anxiety disorders) (ICD10 F32.0, F32.1, F40.0, F40.1, F40.2, F41.0, F41.1, F41.2, F41.3) Dynamic cohort study Number of employees = 137,172   From 2001–2007, CMD densities/1,000 worker-years (95% CI):
    Index episode = one episode during research period Worker-years = 363,461   
      Men: Men:
    Incidence density of index episodes = # of employees with a first episode of sickness absence due to CMDs between 2001 and 2007/worker-years of the total population at risk   Stress = 4,704 Stress = 19.7 (19.1, 20.2)
      Psychiatric = 723 (2.8, 3.2) Psychiatric = 3.0 (2.8, 3.2)
      Total CMD = 34,603 Total CMD = 21.8 (21.2, 22.4)
      Women: Women:
      Stress = 3,298 Stress = 27.8 (26.8, 28.7)
      Psychiatric = 612 Psychiatric = 5.2 (4.7, 5.6)
      Total CMD = 18,026 Total CMD = 31.5 (30.5, 32.5)
Roelen et al. [27] NL Mental and behavioral disorders from medical certification (ICD-10 F00-F99) Dynamic cohort Number of employees = 137,172 Mental and behavioural disorders = 7,197 From 2001–2007, incidence density/1,000 worker-years
       Mental and behavioural disorders (95% CI):
    Incidence density = incident episodes of sickness absence/worker-years at risk Worker-years = 363,461   
       Incidence density = 27.7 (27.0, 28.4)
Roelen et al. [29] NL Mental and behavioral disorders from medical certification: emotional disturbance (ICD-10 R45), depressive disorders (ICD-10 F32), anxiety disorders (ICD-10 F40-41) and stress-related disorders (ICD-10 F43) Incidence/year 2001 = 956,623 Not described Incidence of sickness absence by year/1,000 employees (95% CI):
2001 = 21.1 (20.8, 21.4)
2002 = 962,235 2002 = 22.5 (22.3, 22.8)
2003 = 937,030 2003 = 25.3 (25.0, 25.6)
2004 = 1,037,149 2004 = 25.5 (25.2, 25.8)
2005 = 961,890 2005 = 22.9 (22.6, 23.2)
2006 = 970,390 2006 = 20.0 (19.7, 20.3)
2007 = 913,266
2007 = 20.1 (19.8, 20.4)
2008 = 924,300
2008 = 19.4 (19.1, 19.7)
2009 = 1,033,072
2009 = 16.9 (16.6, 17.2)
2010 = 1,006,861
       2010 = 17.7 (17.4, 18.0)
Hensing et al. [25] NO Included: Psychoses (ICD-10 F20-31, F35-39), anxiety (ICD-10 F40-F43), neurotic conditions (ICD-10 F44-48, F99), depression (ICD-10 F32-F34), personality disorders (ICD-10 F60-69), alcohol/drug abuse (ICD-10 F10-F19) Cumulative incidence = # of individuals with ≥ 1 sickness absence episode initiated in each year studied/# of individuals entitled to sickness benefits during that year Denominator: Not described Age-adjusted cumulative incidence of sickness absence in 2000 (95% CI):
Men: n = 1,219,338
Women: n = 1,063,423 Men:
Psychoses = 0.09% (0.09, 0.09)
Anxiety disorders = 0.20% (0.19, 0.20)
Neurotic conditions = 0.54% (0.54, 0.54)
Depression = 1.31% (1.29, 1.33)
Personality disorders = 0.01% (0.01, 0.01)
Excluded: Dementia, organic psychoses, mental retardation and child and adolescent psychiatry
Alcohol and drug disorders = 0.09% (0.09, 0.09)
Women:
Psychoses = 0.10% (0.10, 0.10)
Anxiety disorders = 0.35% (0.34, 0.35)
Neurotic conditions = 1.11% (1.09, 1.13)
Depression = 3.01% (3.00, 3.04)
Personality disorders = 0.01% (0.01, 0.02)
       Alcohol and drug disorders = 0.02% (0.02, 0.03)
Liberal
Dewa et al. [11] CA (Ontario) Schizophrenia, mood disorders, stress-related disorders and mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use (ICD-10 F00-F99 and Z502, Z503, Z561-566, Z630-Z639, Z729, Z733, Z738, Z864 and Z915) Incidence = Number of sickness absence episodes/worker-years at risk n = 12,407 employees Total = 698 Incidence of disability/100 worker-years (95% CI):
n = 33,028.79 worker-years Men = 449 Mental disorders:
Women = 249 Total = 2.1 (2.0, 2.3)
Men = 1.7 (1.6, 1.9)
       Women = 3.6 (3.2, 4.1)
Latin America
Barbosa-Branco et al. [32] BR Disorders in the ICD-10 Mental and Behavioral Disorders Chapter 5 Case = a newly granted sickness absence claim n = 32,590,239 Not described Age and sex standardized rates of sickness absences for mental and behavioral disorders/10,000 workers = 45.1
Cases that were within 60 days of each other for the same diagnosis were considered to constitute one case
    Incidence = number of sickness benefit claims due to mental disorders/average number of workers at risk    
Reis et al. [30] BR Mental and behavioral disorders (ICD-10 F00-F99) Incidence density = number of new sickness absence/total worker-time at risk for the first sickness absence n = 1,542 workers n = 324 Mental and behavioral disorders:
       Incidence density/100 worker-months = 0.33
Barbosa-Branco et al. [31] BR Disorders in the ICD-10 Mental and Behavioral Disorders Chapter 5 Case = a newly granted sickness absence claim n = 32,590,239   Prevalence of sickness absence claims/10,000 workers:
Cases that were within 60 days of each other for the same diagnosis were considered to constitute one case   Any mental disorder = 147,105 Any mental disorder = 45.1
Depressive episode = 50,289 Depressive episode = 15.4
Other anxiety disorder = 19,508 Other anxiety disorder = 6.0
Incidence = number of sickness benefit claims due to mental disorders/average number of workers at risk   Recurrent depressive episode = 14,524 Recurrent depressive episode = 4.5
Multiple drug use = 11,224 Multiple drug use = 3.4
Bipolar affective disorders = 9,504 Bipolar affective disorders = 2.9
Reaction to severe stress = 9,008 Reaction to severe stress = 2.8
Use of alcohol = 8,545 Use of alcohol = 2.6
Schizophrenia = 4,616 Schizophrenia = 1.4
Use of cocaine = 3,468 Use of cocaine = 1.1
Unspecified nonorganic psychosis = 2,950 Unspecified nonorganic psychosis = 0.91
Phobic anxiety disorders = 2,023 Phobic anxiety disorders = 0.6
      Unspecified nonorganic psychosis = 1,794 Unspecified nonorganic psychosis = 0.6