Skip to main content

Table 1 Persons aged 25–29 years on the census: Indigenous vs. non-Indigenous population level outcomes across three measures of socio-economic development from 1981–2006 for Australia, Canada and New Zealand

From: Gaps in Indigenous disadvantage not closing: a census cohort study of social determinants of health in Australia, Canada, and New Zealand from 1981–2006

  Australia
  1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 2006
Bachelor degree and above (%)       
  Indigenous 0.3 0.5 1.1 2.6 3.5 4.1
  Non-Indigenous 8.6 9.2 11.6 16.8 22.6 29.3
  Gap 8.3 8.7 10.5 14.2 19.1 25.2
Unemployment rate (%)       
  Indigenous 22.3 33.1 31.5 23.2 21.9 16.3
  Non-Indigenous 5.5 9.3 12.3 9.3 7.7 5.3
  Gap 16.9 23.8 19.3 13.8 14.2 11.0
Median individual income ($Aus)       
  Indigenous 4,643 8,115 11,032 12,376 15,236 18,824
  Non-Indigenous 10,273 14,928 20,224 22,932 28,340 34,632
  Indigenous % of non-Indigenous 45.2 54.4 54.5 54.0 53.8 54.4
Population aged 25-29 (no.)       
  Indigenous 12,200 19,500 23,100 30,600 32,600 30,800
  Non-Indigenous 1,127,000 1,249,000 1,272,000 1,288,000 1,237,000 1,164,000
  Canada
  1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 2006
Bachelor degree and above (%)       
  Aboriginal 3.4 4.5 6.2 7.1 9.0 11.4
  Non-Aboriginal 14.3 14.0 17.0 22.2 26.5 29.0
  Gap 10.9 9.5 10.8 15.1 17.5 17.6
Unemployment rate (%)       
  Aboriginal 14.8 22.4 21.7 22.8 17.1 13.3
  Non-Aboriginal 7.3 10.8 11.5 10.7 7.6 6.7
  Gap 7.4 11.6 10.2 12.1 9.5 6.6
Median individual income ($Can)       
  Aboriginal 7,666 10,953 14,488 13,218 16,391 19,507
  Non-Aboriginal 12,712 16,090 20,872 19,805 23,912 25,644
  Aboriginal % of non-Aboriginal 60.3 68.1 69.4 66.7 68.5 76.1
Population aged 25-29 (no.)       
  Aboriginal 41,800 71,100 99,200 96,800 105,000 125,000
  Non-Aboriginal 2,124,000 2,256,000 2,259,000 1,926,000 1,782,000 1,851,000
  New Zealand
  1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 2006
Bachelor degree and above (%)       
  Māori 1.2 1.8 2.2 3.9 7.0 10.0
  Non-Māori 7.7 9.5 10.4 14.6 20.1 29.5
  Gap 6.6 7.8 8.2 10.7 13.1 19.5
Unemployment rate (%)       
  Māori 8.7 13.7 26.7 18.7 17.5 11.6
  Non-Māori 3.4 5.3 10.0 6.7 6.8 4.8
  Gap 5.4 8.4 16.7 11.9 10.7 6.8
Median individual income ($NZ)       
  Māori 7,100 11,200 13,100 15,500 18,500 25,400
  Non-Māori 9,200 14,700 20,300 23,400 26,200 31,400
  Māori% of non-Māori 77.2 76.2 64.5 66.2 70.6 80.9
Population aged 25-29 (no.)       
  Māori 29,300 36,100 39,600 43,100 40,200 38,100
  Non-Māori 207,000 228,000 230,000 217,000 196,000 192,000