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Table 2 Q-set statements and factor array

From: Using Q-methodology to explore people’s health seeking behavior and perception of the quality of primary care services

# Statement Factor
1 2 3 4
1 Women adequately use antenatal care services at PHCCs 0** 3 2 3
2 I only visit PHCCs for vaccination of children -1 -1 -4 -3
3 It is not easy to call a family doctor or a doctor we know to get advice for any illness 2 1 3 2
4 The working hours of PHCCs are suitable to most people -1 2 -1 0
5 Necessary laboratory investigations are not available at PHCCs 1 1 -3** 1
6 There is good organization of service provision at PHCCs -2** 2 0* 1
7 People have easy access to health services at PHCCs 0** 3 3 1*
8 Doctors focus too much on medication and neglect the psychosocial aspects of patients 2 0 -3 -2
9 Physicians in PHCCs excessively refer patients to specialists for their health problems 1 1 -1* -3**
10 For simple illness like flu I visit a private nurse clinic 1 4** 0* 0
11 There are convenient waiting amenities at PHCCs -2** 4** 1 0
12 Having the PHCCs run mainly by general practitioners and not specialists is an important reason for not using these services. 3** -1 1** -1
13 PHCCs are mainly used by poor people 3 0* 1* 3
14 Sometimes I make some general investigations before or even without consulting a doctor 1 -3 1 -3
15 If I think the disease is serious I will consult a private physician 4 -3** 4** 4
16 When I am really ill, I visit a PHCC to get consultation -1 -1 -3** 1*
17 I seek family member advice on decision making for source of health care -1 -2 1** -1
18 If I feel sick I try to consult a specialist rather than a general practitioner 3 -2** 3 1
19 People consider the doctor that prescribe more drugs particularly injections a better doctor 0** -3 -1 -2
20 Doctors at PHCCs instead of dispensing available drugs prescribe costly medicines from the private sector 1* -4** -2* 0*
21 Doctors in general provide sufficient explanation of the disease and treatment -1* -4* 1* 0*
22 Health care providers at PHCCs are not competent and are not trained well 1 -2 0 -1
23 Health care professionals at PHCCs are adequately understanding and empathetic towards people -2 0 -1 0
24 I sometimes visit a hospital without getting a referral from PHCC 0 0 2* 0
25 I do not visit PHCCs at all 0 -2 -3 -4**
26 I usually visit PHCC to get referral to a hospital 0 -3** 0 1**
27 We commonly visit a private pharmacy for consultation and getting treatment -1 -2 -2 -1
28 In PHCCs, there is enough opportunity for patients to ask questions or obtain explanations for their health problems -3* 0 -2* 1
29 The hygienic situation at PHCCs is well maintained -3 -2 1 2**
30 Patient’s privacy and confidentiality are not adequately respected in PHCCs 1 -1 -1 0
31 When I feel sick I take left-over drugs by myself -2* 2* -1 -4**
32 I use private nurse/medical assistant clinic for being near and less costly 0 3* -4** 2
33 PHCCs have only analgesics and no real treatment 2 0 0 4*
34 For some types of illness I use traditional healers -4 2** -1* -3
35 Physicians in private sector understand the financial condition of patient and prescribe treatment accordingly -2 -1 0 -1
36 Physicians at PHCCs provide enough care and time to patients -3** 2 0* 2
37 When I have any health problem, initially I either do not do anything or try some home remedies 1 1 1 3
38 At private clinic physicians spend more time and provide better care to patients than in PHCCs 4* -1 2* 1
39 Health education service is provided adequately in PHCCs -3 2** -2 -1
40 Health expenditures cause financial burden on the family 2 3 4 -2**
41 People prefer private physicians clinics due to lack of drugs in PHCCs 2 0* 2 2
42 For any illness, we make an early consultation to avoid taking risk 0 1 2 2
43 The families who can afford the expenditure prefer private health facilities and private doctors for seeking treatment over public facilities 3 0 2 0
44 For children illness we visit a PHCC for consultation -1** 1 -2** 3*
45 Physicians at PHCCs listen to the problems patiently before prescribing treatment -4** 1 0 -2*
46 We consult a private specialist of our choice according to the nature of the disease we have 2 -1 3 0
47 I ask physician or health staff to prescribe or administer injections 0 0 -2 -1
48 For some types of illness we turn to shrines or local religious methods for relief -1 0* -1 -2
49 The waiting time for having services at PHCCs is appropriate -2 1 0 -1
50 We very rarely seek after-hour services or immediate medical advice like visiting emergency hospital 0 -1 0 -2
  1. * Distinguishing statement significant at <0.05; ** Distinguishing statement significant at <0.01; Bold type indicates consensus statement.