Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline, bivariate and multivariable analyses of factors associated with a history of being in government care among street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada (n = 937)

From: High prevalence of exposure to the child welfare system among street-involved youth in a Canadian setting: implications for policy and practice

  Government care exposure    
Characteristic Yes No Odds ratio, (95% CIa) p-value Adjusted odds ratio, (95% CIa) p-value
n = 455, n(%) n = 482 n(%)
Age at first substance use 15b 16b 1.12 (1.06 – 1.18) <0.001 1.10 (1.05 – 1.16) <0.001
  Per year younger (13–16)c (14–17)c     
Gender       
  Female vs. Male 157 (35) 135 (28) 1.35 (1.03 – 1.79) 0.032   
Aboriginal ancestry       
  Yes vs. No 139 (31) 85 (18) 2.05 (1.51 – 2.80) <0.001 2.07 (1.50 – 2.85) <0.001
High school incompletion       
  Yes vs. No 375 (82) 346 (72) 1.84 (1.35 – 2.52) <0.001 1.40 (1.00 – 1.95) 0.049
Parental alcohol/ Substance use       
  Yes vs. No 354 (78) 320 (66) 1.77 (1.33 – 2.37) <0.001 1.48 (1.09 – 2.01) 0.012
Lives in the DTES d       
  Yes vs. No 124 (27) 139 (29) 0.92 (0.70 – 1.23) 0.590   
Homeless d       
  Yes vs. No 349 (77) 352 (73) 1.22 (0.90 – 1.64) 0.200   
Injection substance use d       
  Yes vs. No 132 (29) 150 (31) 0.91 (0.68 - 1.20) 0.482   
Daily heroin use d, e       
  Yes vs. No 49 (11) 68 (14) 0.74 (0.50 – 1.09) 0.123   
Daily cocaine use e       
  Yes vs. No 19 (4) 21 (4) 0.96 (0.51 – 1.80) 0.891   
Daily crack use d       
  Yes vs. No 85 (19) 87 (18) 1.04 (0.75 – 1.45) 0.803   
Daily crystal meth use e       
  Yes vs. No 72 (16) 54 (11) 1.49 (1.02 – 2.18) 0.039   
Drug overdose d       
  Yes vs. No 58 (13) 46 (10) 1.39 (0.92 – 2.09) 0.120   
Hepatitis C positive       
  Yes vs. No 90 (20) 64 (13) 1.61 (1.14 – 2.29) 0.008 1.36 (0.94 – 1.97) 0.099
Syringe sharing d       
  Yes vs. No 38 (8) 37 (8) 1.10 (0.68 – 1.76) 0.703   
Victim of violence d       
  Yes vs. No 214 (47) 210 (44) 1.15 (0.89 – 1.49) 0.287   
Incarcerated d       
  Yes vs. No 96 (21) 86 (18) 1.23 (0.89 – 1.70) 0.208   
Physical abuse       
  Yes vs. No 413 (91) 397 (82) 2.11 (1.42 – 3.12) <0.001 1.90 (1.22 – 2.96) 0.005
Sexual abuse       
  Yes vs. No 345 (76) 317 (66) 1.63 (1.23 – 2.17) <0.001 1.29 (0.93 – 1.78) 0.124
Sex work d       
  Yes vs. No 54 (12) 43 (9) 1.38 (0.90 – 2.10) 0.140   
Drug dealing d       
  Yes vs. No 254 (56) 255 (53) 1.13 (0.87 – 1.46) 0.370   
  1. Note: aCI = Confidence Interval; bMedian; cInterquartile Range; dRefers to activities in the past six months; eInjection and Non-injection.