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Table 2 Competing risk regression modelling of time from TB initiation to starting ART in TB patients co-infected with HIV at MPC, January 2011 and December 2011

From: Timing of antiretroviral therapy and regimen for HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis: the effect of revised HIV guidelines in Malawi

   Characteristics N (%) SHR(95% CI) Adjusted SHR(95% CI)
Guideline change      
  Before 377 (55%) 1 (ref) 1 (ref)
  After 308 (45%) 1.34 (1.13 – 1.61) 1.38 (1.15–1.65)
Sex      
  Male 447 65%) 1 (ref) 1 (ref)
  Female 238 (35%) 0.87 (0.72 – 1.04) 0.87 (0.71–1.06)
Age (years) 685 0.99 (0.98 – 1.01) 0.99 (0.98–1.00)
Type of TB      
  Extrapulmonary 153 (23%) 1.15 (0.92 – 1.43) 1.16 (0.92–1.46)
  Smear–positive pulmonary 187 (29%) 1.04 (0.84 – 1.29) 1.04 (0.84–1.30)
  Smear–positive pulmonary 313 (48%) 1 (ref) 1 (ref)
TB patient category      
  New 623 (92%) 1 (ref) 1 (ref)
  Retreatment 57 (8%) 0.70 (0.52 – 0.95) 0.66 (0.49–0.91)
Enrolled in HIV care      
  Before TB diagnosis 107 (16%) 1.77 (1.43 – 2.20) 1.72 (1.36–2.18)
  After TB diagnosis 578 (84%) 1 (ref) 1 (ref)
  1. SHR = SubHazard ratios 45 PTB had unknown smear results; 5 cases had missing data for TB patient category.